Germination

germinategerminatinggerminatesgerminatedseed germinationgermination ratePollen germinationseedlingsspore germinationexposed to light
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.wikipedia
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Sprouting

bean sproutbean sproutssprouts
The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm.
Sprouting is the natural process by which seeds or spores germinate and put out shoots, and already established plants produce new leaves or buds or other newly developing parts experience further growth.

Seedling

seedlingsplumuleLamha
The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm.
Seedling development starts with germination of the seed.

Seed

seedsseed coatkernel
The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm.
This tissue becomes the food the young plant will consume until the roots have developed after germination.

Seed dormancy

dormancydormantdormancy period
For some seeds, their future germination response is affected by environmental conditions during seed formation; most often these responses are types of seed dormancy.
Dormant seed do not germinate in a specified period of time under a combination of environmental factors that are normally conducive to the germination of non-dormant seeds.

Gibberellin

gibberellinsgibberelinsgibberellic acid
Factors affecting seed dormancy include the presence of certain plant hormones, notably abscisic acid, which inhibits germination, and gibberellin, which ends seed dormancy.
Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that regulate various developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, flower development, and leaf and fruit senescence.

Malt

malted barleymalt extractbarley malt
In brewing, barley seeds are treated with gibberellin to ensure uniform seed germination for the production of barley malt.
The grain is made to germinate by soaking in water and is then halted from germinating further by drying with hot air.

Radish

Raphanus sativusradishesR. raphanistrum'' subsp. ''sativus
The seed germinates in three to four days in moist conditions with soil temperatures between 65 and 85 °F.

Embryo

embryosembryonalhuman embryos
All fully developed seeds contain an embryo and, in most plant species some store of food reserves, wrapped in a seed coat.
Once the embryo begins to germinate (grow out from the seed) and forms its first true leaf, it is called a seedling or plantlet.

Fruit

fruitsfruitingfresh fruit
The seed of a vascular plant is a small package produced in a fruit or cone after the union of male and female reproductive cells.
Likewise, the nutritious, oily kernels of nuts are appealing to rodents (such as squirrels), which hoard them in the soil to avoid starving during the winter, thus giving those seeds that remain uneaten the chance to germinate and grow into a new plant away from their parent.

Abscisic acid

ABAabscisateabscissic acid
Factors affecting seed dormancy include the presence of certain plant hormones, notably abscisic acid, which inhibits germination, and gibberellin, which ends seed dormancy.
Plants that are hypersensitive or insensitive to ABA show phenotypes in seed dormancy, germination, stomatal regulation, and some mutants show stunted growth and brown/yellow leaves.

Flowering plant

Angiospermsflowering plantsangiosperm
The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm. Another germination event during the life cycle of gymnosperms and flowering plants is the germination of a pollen grain after pollination.
Upon germination of the seed, a new plant can grow and mature.

Brewing

brewerbrewersbottle conditioned
In brewing, barley seeds are treated with gibberellin to ensure uniform seed germination for the production of barley malt.
Grain is malted by soaking it in water, allowing it to begin germination, and then drying the partially germinated grain in a kiln.

Wildfire

forest fireforest fireswildfires
Exposure to smoke from burning plants promotes germination in other types of plants by inducing the production of the orange butenolide.

Cotyledon

cotyledonsseed leafseed leaves
This shoot comprises three main parts: the cotyledons (seed leaves), the section of shoot below the cotyledons (hypocotyl), and the section of shoot above the cotyledons (epicotyl). In epigeal germination (or epigeous germination), the hypocotyl elongates and forms a hook, pulling rather than pushing the cotyledons and apical meristem through the soil.
A cotyledon ("seed leaf" from Latin cotyledon, from Greek: κοτυληδών kotylēdōn, gen.: κοτυληδόνος kotylēdonos, from κοτύλη kotýlē "cup, bowl") is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant, and is defined as "the embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants, one or more of which are the first to appear from a germinating seed."

Soil

soilsdirtsoil moisture
Soil temperature regulates seed germination, breaking of seed dormancy, plant and root growth and the availability of nutrients.

Epigeal germination

epigealepigeallyepigeal dormancy
In epigeal germination (or epigeous germination), the hypocotyl elongates and forms a hook, pulling rather than pushing the cotyledons and apical meristem through the soil.
Epigeal germination (Ancient Greek ἐπίγαιος [] 'above ground', from ἐπί [on' and γῆ [] 'earth, ground') is a botanical term indicating that the germination of a plant takes place above the ground.

Shoot

shootsspur shootfruiting spur
After the root absorbs water, an embryonic shoot emerges from the seed.
The new growth from seed germination that grows upward is a shoot where leaves will develop.

Radicle

embryonic root
In some definitions, the appearance of the radicle marks the end of germination and the beginning of "establishment", a period that utilizes the food reserves stored in the seed.
In botany, the radicle is the first part of a seedling (a growing plant embryo) to emerge from the seed during the process of germination.

Pollen

exinepollen grainmicrosporogenesis
Like seeds, pollen grains are severely dehydrated before being released to facilitate their dispersal from one plant to another.
If pollen lands on a compatible pistil or female cone, it germinates, producing a pollen tube that transfers the sperm to the ovule containing the female gametophyte.

Ecology

ecologicalecologistecologically
Often this depends on the individual seed variety and is closely linked to the ecological conditions of a plant's natural habitat.
Some species (e.g., Pinus halepensis) cannot germinate until after their seeds have lived through a fire or been exposed to certain compounds from smoke.

Pollination

pollinatedpollinatecross-pollination
Another germination event during the life cycle of gymnosperms and flowering plants is the germination of a pollen grain after pollination.
Pollen germination has three stages; hydration, activation and pollen tube emergence.

Self-incompatibility

self-incompatibleself-compatibleself-fertile
In self-incompatibility in plants, the stigma of certain plants can molecularly recognize pollen from the same plant and prevent it from germinating.
In plants with SI, when a pollen grain produced in a plant reaches a stigma of the same plant or another plant with a similar genotype, the process of pollen germination, pollen-tube growth, ovule fertilization and embryo development is halted at one of its stages and consequently no seeds are produced.

Plant

Plantaeplantsflora
In agriculture and gardening, the germination rate describes how many seeds of a particular plant species, variety or seedlot are likely to germinate over a given period.
The DNA damage response is particularly important during seed germination, since seed quality tends to deteriorate with age in association with DNA damage accumulation.

Dormancy

dormantbrumationbrumate
Some live seeds are dormant and need more time, and/or need to be subjected to specific environmental conditions before they will germinate.
Seed dormancy is referred to as embryo dormancy or internal dormancy and is caused by endogenous characteristics of the embryo that prevent germination (Black M, Butler J, Hughes M. 1987).

Physiology

physiologistphysiologicalphysiologically
Pollen germination is facilitated by hydration on the stigma, as well as by the structure and physiology of the stigma and style.
Fundamental processes of plant physiology include photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrition, tropisms, nastic movements, photoperiodism, photomorphogenesis, circadian rhythms, seed germination, dormancy, and stomata function and transpiration.