Ghassanids

GhassanidGhassanBanu GhassanGhassanid ArabGhassanid KingdomGhassanid stateGhassanid ArabsGhassānGhassānidsJafna bin Amr
The Ghassanids (الغساسنة, also Banū Ghassān "Sons of Ghassān") were a pre-Islamic Arab tribe which founded an Arab kingdom.wikipedia
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Yemen

Republic of YemenYemeniJemen
They immigrated from Yemen in the early 3rd century to the Levant region.
Justinian I bestowed the "dignity of king" upon the Arab sheikhs of Kindah and Ghassan in central and northern Arabia.

Pre-Islamic Arabia

pre-Islamicpre-Islamic eraancient Arabia
The Ghassanids (الغساسنة, also Banū Ghassān "Sons of Ghassān") were a pre-Islamic Arab tribe which founded an Arab kingdom.
The Ghassanids were a group of South Arabian Christian tribes that emigrated in the early 3rd century from Yemen to the Hauran in southern Syria, Jordan and the Holy Land where they intermarried with Hellenized Roman settlers and Greek-speaking Early Christian communities.

Muslim conquest of the Levant

Muslim conquest of SyriaMuslim conquestSyria
Few Ghassanids became Muslim following the Muslim conquest of the Levant; most Ghassanids remained Christian and joined Melkite and Syriac communities within what is now Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Syria and Lebanon.
Part of the area was ruled by the Arab vassal state of the Ghassanids' symmachos.

Jabiyah

Jabiyaal-JabiyaGabitha
The capital was at Jabiyah in the Golan Heights.
It initially served as the capital of the Ghassanids, an Arab vassal kingdom of the Byzantine Empire.

Arabs

ArabArab peopleArabian
The Ghassanids fought alongside the Byzantine Empire against the Persian Sassanids and Arab Lakhmids.
Arab tribes, most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids, begin to appear in the southern Syrian Desert from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to later stages of the Roman and Sasanian empires.

Azd

Al-AzdAzdiAl Azd
Geographically, it occupied much of the eastern Levant, and its authority extended via tribal alliances with other Azdi tribes all the way to the northern Hijaz as far south as Yathrib (Medina).

Al-Harith ibn Jabalah

Al-Harith Val-HarithAl-Harith ibn Jabalah al-Ghassani
The Ghassanid king al-Harith ibn Jabalah (reigned 529–569) supported the Byzantines against Sassanid Persia and was given in 529 by the emperor Justinian I, the highest imperial title that was ever bestowed upon a foreign ruler; also the status of patricians.
Al-Ḥārith ibn Jabalah (الحارث بن جبلة; [Flavios] Arethas in Greek sources; Khālid ibn Jabalah in later Islamic sources), was a king of the Ghassanids, pre-Islamic Arabs who lived on the eastern frontier of the Byzantine Empire.

Banu 'Amilah

Banu AmelaAmilaAmilah
They became the leading tribe among the Arab foederati, such as Banu Amela and Banu Judham.
They were noted for their strong commitment to the Empire in the 6th century and acknowledged Ghassanid supremacy among the Arab foederati.

Lakhmids

LakhmidLakhmLakhmid Arabs
The Ghassanids fought alongside the Byzantine Empire against the Persian Sassanids and Arab Lakhmids. After settling in the Levant, the Ghassanids became a client state to the Byzantine Empire and fought alongside them against the Persian Sassanids and their Arab vassals, the Lakhmids. The Ghassanids, who had successfully opposed the Persian allied Lakhmids of al-Hirah (Southern modern-day Iraq), prospered economically and engaged in much religious and public building; they also patronized the arts and at one time entertained the Arabian poets Nabighah adh-Dhubyani and Hassan ibn Thabit at their courts.
Thereafter, the Lakhmids' main rivals were the Ghassanids, who were vassals of the Sassanians' arch-enemy, the Roman Empire.

Golan Heights

GolanGaulanitisJawlan
The capital was at Jabiyah in the Golan Heights.
In about 250, the Ghassanids, Arab Christians from Yemen, established a kingdom that encompassed southern Syria and the Transjordan, building their capital at Jabiyah.

Battle of Mu'tah

Battle of Mu'taBattle of Mut'ahMu'tah
It is worth noting that a significant percentage of the Muslim armies in the Battle of Mu'tah were Christian Arabs.
The Battle of Mu'tah was fought in September 629 C.E. (1 Jumada al-awwal 8 A.H.), near the village of Mu'tah, east of the Jordan River and Karak in Karak Governorate, between the forces of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the forces of the Byzantine Empire and their Arab Christian Ghassanid vassals.

Al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith

al-Mundhir IIIal-MundhirMundhir III
Al-Mundhir ibn al-Ḥārith, known in Greek sources as (Flavios) Alamoundaros, was the king of the Ghassanid Arabs from 569 to circa 581.

Nikephoros I

Nicephorus INikephoros I LogothetesNikephoros
Ghassanid influence on the empire lasted centuries; the climax of this presence was the elevation of one of his descendants, Nikephoros I (ruled 802-811) to the throne and his establishment of a short-lived dynasty that can be described as the Nikephorian or Phocid Dynasty in the 9th century.
Both Syriac sources such as Michael the Syrian and Arabic ones like al-Tabari and Mas'udi hold that the emperor was of a Ghassanid Arab origin.

Jabalah IV ibn al-Harith

Jabalah IVJabala ibn al-Ḥarith
Jabalah IV ibn al-Ḥārith, known also by the tecnonymic Abū Shammar, in Greek sources found as Gabalas, was a ruler of the Ghassanids.

Battle of Yarmouk

Battle of YarmukYarmoukYarmuk
The Ghassanids remained a Byzantine vassal state until its rulers and the eastern Byzantine Empire were overthrown by the Muslims in the 7th century, following the Battle of Yarmuk in 636 AD.
Buccinator (Qanatir), a Slavic prince, commanded the Slavs and Jabalah ibn al-Aiham, king of the Ghassanid Arabs, commanded an exclusively Christian Arab force.

Jabalah ibn al-Aiham

Jabalah VI ibn Al-Aiham
Jabalah Ibn Al-Aiham was the last ruler of the Ghassanid state in Syria and Jordan in the 7th century AD.

Syria

Syrian Arab RepublicSyrianEtymology of Syria
Some opinions go along the general idea that the Ghassanids were not interested yet in giving up their status as the lords and nobility of Syria.
Prior to the Arab Islamic Conquest in the 7th century AD, the bulk of the population were Arameans, but Syria was also home to Greek and Roman ruling classes, Assyrians still dwelt in the north east, Phoenicians along the coasts, and Jewish and Armenian communities was also extant in major cities, with Nabateans and pre-Islamic Arabs such as the Lakhmids and Ghassanids dwelling in the deserts of southern Syria.

Foederati

foedusfoederatusfederate
Their earliest appearance in records is dated to 473 AD, when their chief Amorkesos signed a treaty with the Eastern Roman Empire acknowledging their status as foederati controlling parts of Palestine.
Among these foederati were the Tanukhids, Banu Judham, Banu Amela and the Ghassanids.

Al-Nabigha

al-Nābighah al-Dhubyānīal-Nabighah al-DhubyaniNabighah adh-Dhubyani
The Ghassanids, who had successfully opposed the Persian allied Lakhmids of al-Hirah (Southern modern-day Iraq), prospered economically and engaged in much religious and public building; they also patronized the arts and at one time entertained the Arabian poets Nabighah adh-Dhubyani and Hassan ibn Thabit at their courts.
His tribe, the Banu Dhubyan, belonged to the district near Mecca, but he spent most of his time at the courts of Hirah and Ghassan.

Al-Nu'man VI ibn al-Mundhir

al-Nu'man VIal-Nu'man
Al-Nuʿmān ibn al-Mundhir, known in Greek sources as Naamanes was a king of the Ghassanids, a Christian Arab tribe allied to the Byzantine Empire.

Salīhids

SalihidsSalihBanu Salīh
They succeeded the Tanukhids, who were dominant in the 4th century, and were in turn defeated and replaced by the Ghassanids in the early 6th century.

Rasulid dynasty

RasulidRasulidsYemen
Some sources claim he was descended from the last Ghassanid king Jabalah VI ibn Al-Aiham.

Rashidun Caliphate

RashidunRashidun caliphRashidun Caliphs
Bosra, caught unprepared, surrendered after a brief siege in July 634 (see Battle of Bosra), effectively ending the dynasty of the Ghassanids.

Hellenization

HellenizedHellenismHellenised
Some merged with Hellenized Christian communities, converting to Christianity in the first few centuries AD, while others may have already been Christians before emigrating north to escape religious persecution.

Christianity

ChristianChristiansChristian faith
Some merged with Hellenized Christian communities, converting to Christianity in the first few centuries AD, while others may have already been Christians before emigrating north to escape religious persecution.