Giant planet

jovian planetgiant planetsJovianjovian planetsgaseous planetgiantJovian companionJovian exoplanetjovian sizedJovian-class planet
For the planet in Transformers, see Giant Planet (Transformers).wikipedia
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Planet

planetsFormer classification of planetsplanetary-mass object
A giant planet is any massive planet.
Planets are generally divided into two main types: large low-density giant planets, and smaller rocky terrestrials.

Jupiter

Jovianplanet JupiterGiove
There are four known giant planets in the Solar System: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined.

Solar System

outer Solar Systeminner Solar SystemSol system
There are four known giant planets in the Solar System: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
The four outer planets are giant planets, being substantially more massive than the terrestrials.

Neptune

NeptunianNeptune-masseighth planet
There are four known giant planets in the Solar System: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
In the Solar System, it is the fourth-largest planet by diameter, the third-most-massive planet, and the densest giant planet.

Uranus

Uranian34 TauriGeorgium Sidus
There are four known giant planets in the Solar System: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
Like the other giant planets, Uranus has a ring system, a magnetosphere, and numerous moons.

Gas giant

gas giantsgiant planetJovian
They are also sometimes known as gas giants.
A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.

Ice giant

ice giantsice giant planetice giant planets
However, many astronomers now apply the latter term only to Jupiter and Saturn, classifying Uranus and Neptune, which have different compositions, as ice giants.
An ice giant is a giant planet composed mainly of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur.

Exoplanetology

exoplanetary sciencemassive solid planetexoplanet research
They are usually primarily composed of low-boiling-point materials (gases or ices), rather than rock or other solid matter, but massive solid planets can also exist.
Beta Pictoris b's distance from its star is 9 AU. At such distances the rotation of Jovian planets is not slowed by tidal effects.

Jupiter mass

M J mass of Jupitermass
Objects large enough to start deuterium fusion (above 13 Jupiter masses for solar composition) are called brown dwarfs, and these occupy the mass range between that of large giant planets and the lowest-mass stars.
Jupiter is by far the most massive planet in the Solar System.

Hot Neptune

warmer version
These are called hot Jupiters and hot Neptunes because they have very high surface temperatures.
A hot Neptune or Hoptune is a type of giant planet with a mass similar to that of Uranus or Neptune orbiting close to its star, normally within less than 1 AU.

Nice model

computer modelJupiter migrated inwardmigrated outward
The Nice model, in fact, suggests that Neptune formed closer to the Sun than Uranus did, and should therefore have more heavy elements.
It proposes the migration of the giant planets from an initial compact configuration into their present positions, long after the dissipation of the initial protoplanetary disk.

Planet Nine

ninth planetgroup of objects
* Planet Nine
Konstantin Batygin and Michael E. Brown suggest that Planet Nine could be the core of a giant planet that was ejected from its original orbit by Jupiter during the genesis of the Solar System.

Terrestrial planet

terrestrial planetsrockyrocky planet
Terrestrial planet
Terrestrial planets have a solid planetary surface, making them substantially different from the larger giant planets, which are composed mostly of some combination of hydrogen, helium, and water existing in various physical states.

Gas

gasesgaseousg
They are usually primarily composed of low-boiling-point materials (gases or ices), rather than rock or other solid matter, but massive solid planets can also exist.

Rock (geology)

rockstonerocks
They are usually primarily composed of low-boiling-point materials (gases or ices), rather than rock or other solid matter, but massive solid planets can also exist.

Solid

solidsssolid state
They are usually primarily composed of low-boiling-point materials (gases or ices), rather than rock or other solid matter, but massive solid planets can also exist.

Saturn

Saturn's atmosphereExploration of Saturnhome planet
There are four known giant planets in the Solar System: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

Exoplanet

extrasolar planetexoplanetsplanet
Many extrasolar giant planets have been identified orbiting other stars.

Star, Russia

starstellarstars
Objects large enough to start deuterium fusion (above 13 Jupiter masses for solar composition) are called brown dwarfs, and these occupy the mass range between that of large giant planets and the lowest-mass stars. Many extrasolar giant planets have been identified orbiting other stars.

Critical point (thermodynamics)

critical pointcritical temperaturecritical pressure
Both names are potentially misleading: all of the giant planets consist primarily of fluids above their critical points, where distinct gas and liquid phases do not exist.

Helium

Hesuperfluid heliumhelium II
The principal components are hydrogen and helium in the case of Jupiter and Saturn, and water, ammonia and methane in the case of Uranus and Neptune.

Water

H 2 Oliquid wateraqueous
The principal components are hydrogen and helium in the case of Jupiter and Saturn, and water, ammonia and methane in the case of Uranus and Neptune.

Ammonia

NH 3 anhydrous ammonialiquid ammonia
The principal components are hydrogen and helium in the case of Jupiter and Saturn, and water, ammonia and methane in the case of Uranus and Neptune.

Methane

methane gasCH 4 liquid methane
The principal components are hydrogen and helium in the case of Jupiter and Saturn, and water, ammonia and methane in the case of Uranus and Neptune.

Brown dwarf

brown dwarfsbrown dwarvesPlanetar
Objects large enough to start deuterium fusion (above 13 Jupiter masses for solar composition) are called brown dwarfs, and these occupy the mass range between that of large giant planets and the lowest-mass stars. The defining differences between a very low-mass brown dwarf and a gas giant are debated.