Gibraltar

GIBGibraltar Health AuthorityGibraltarianG'''ibraltarThe RockGeography of GibraltarGIGibraltanGibraltar, GibraltarJabal Tariq
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.wikipedia
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Spain

SpanishESPKingdom of Spain
It has an area of 2.6 sqmi and is bordered to the north by Spain.
The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Iberian Peninsula

IberiaIberianPeninsula
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal and Spain, comprising most of their territory, as well as Andorra, small areas of France, and the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.

Status of Gibraltar

disputed status of GibraltardisputedGibraltar dispute
The sovereignty of Gibraltar is a point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations because Spain asserts a claim to the territory.
Gibraltar, a British Overseas Territory, located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula, is the subject of an irredentist territorial claim by Spain.

Gibraltarians

GibraltarianGibraltarian peopleGibraltan
The landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar at the foot of which is a densely populated town area, home to over 32,000 people, primarily Gibraltarians.
The Gibraltarians (colloquially: Llanitos) are a cultural group native to Gibraltar, a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea.

Spain–United Kingdom relations

Anglo-Spanish relationsSpain-United Kingdom relationsAnglo-Spanish conflict
The sovereignty of Gibraltar is a point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations because Spain asserts a claim to the territory.
They have also been complicated by the fact that the United Kingdom and Spain were both imperial powers, after the same land, an occurrence which is being played out to this day with the disputed ownership and status of Gibraltar.

Gibraltar–Spain border

Gibraltar-Spain borderborder with Spainborder
It has an area of 2.6 sqmi and is bordered to the north by Spain.
The Gibraltar–Spain border is the international boundary between the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar and the Kingdom of Spain.

Strait of Gibraltar

Straits of GibraltarGibraltar Straitstraits
During World War II it was an important base for the Royal Navy as it controlled the entrance and exit to the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar, which is only 8.9 mi wide at this naval choke point.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق; Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa.

Gorham's Cave

Gorham's Cave ComplexDeep scratches
Evidence of Neanderthal habitation in Gibraltar from around 50,000 years ago has been discovered at Gorham's Cave.
Gorham's Cave (Cueva de Gorham, ) is often mistaken for a natural sea cave, but is in fact a sea level cave, in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.

2002 Gibraltar sovereignty referendum

2002referendum2002 referendum
Gibraltarians rejected proposals for Spanish sovereignty in a 1967 referendum and, in a 2002 referendum, the idea of shared sovereignty was also rejected.
The Gibraltar sovereignty referendum of 2002 was a referendum which was called by the Government of Gibraltar and was held on 7 November 2002 within the British overseas territory on a proposal by the UK Government to share sovereignty of the territory between Spain and the United Kingdom.

Rock of Gibraltar

The RockRockGibraltar
The landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar at the foot of which is a densely populated town area, home to over 32,000 people, primarily Gibraltarians.
The Rock of Gibraltar, also known as the Rock, is a monolithic limestone promontory located in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar, near the southwestern tip of Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.

Mediterranean Sea

MediterraneanMediterranean coastWestern Mediterranean
During World War II it was an important base for the Royal Navy as it controlled the entrance and exit to the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar, which is only 8.9 mi wide at this naval choke point.
In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.

Marinid Sultanate

MarinidMarinid dynastyMarinids
From 1274 onwards, the town was fought over and captured by the Nasrids of Granada (in 1237 and 1374), the Marinids of Morocco (in 1274 and 1333) and the kings of Castile (in 1309).
The Marinid Sultanate covered present-day Morocco and, intermittently, parts of North Africa and southern Spain around Gibraltar, from the mid-13th to the 15th century.

Prehistoric Iberia

Almerian cultureIberianprehistoric times
Numerous potsherds dating from the Neolithic period have been found in Gibraltar's caves, mostly of types typical of the Almerian culture found elsewhere in Andalusia, especially around the town of Almería, from which it takes its name.
This culture continued to exist until around 28,000 BC when Neanderthal man faced extinction, their final refuge has been said to be Gibraltar.

San Roque, Cádiz

San RoqueCarteiaPuente Mayorga
The town of Carteia, near the location of the modern Spanish town of San Roque, was founded by the Phoenicians around 950 BC on the site of an early settlement of the native Turdetani people.
San Roque is situated a short way inland of the north side of the Bay of Gibraltar, just to the north of the Gibraltar peninsula.

Moorish Castle

Tower of HomageHer Majesty's Prison, GibraltarGibraltar
The Tower of Homage of the Moorish Castle remains standing today.
The Moorish Castle is the name given to a medieval fortification in Gibraltar comprising various buildings, gates, and fortified walls, with the dominant features being the Tower of Homage and the Gate House.

Great Siege of Gibraltar

relief of GibraltarGreat Siegesiege of Gibraltar
Unsuccessful attempts by Spanish monarchs to regain Gibraltar were made with the siege of 1727 and again with the Great Siege of Gibraltar (1779 to 1783), during the American War of Independence.
The Great Siege of Gibraltar was an unsuccessful attempt by Spain and France to capture Gibraltar from the British during the American War of Independence.

Umayyad conquest of Hispania

Muslim conquestMuslim invasionMuslim conquest of Spain
Tariq's expedition led to the Islamic conquest of most of the Iberian peninsula.
During the caliphate of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I, forces led by Tariq ibn Ziyad disembarked in early 711 in Gibraltar at the head of an army consisting of Berbers from north Morocco.

Military history of Gibraltar during World War II

during World War IIWorld War IIGibraltar
During the Second World War, most of Gibraltar's civilian population was evacuated, mainly to London, but also to parts of Morocco and Madeira and to Gibraltar Camp in Jamaica.
The military history of Gibraltar during World War II exemplifies Gibraltar's position as a British fortress since the early 18th century and as a vital factor in British military strategy, both as a foothold on the continent of Europe, and as a bastion of British sea power.

Carteia

KartLibertinorum Carteia
The town of Carteia, near the location of the modern Spanish town of San Roque, was founded by the Phoenicians around 950 BC on the site of an early settlement of the native Turdetani people.
It was established at the most northerly point of the bay, next to the town of San Roque, about halfway between the modern cities of Algeciras and Gibraltar, overlooking the sea on elevated ground at the confluence of two rivers, nowadays called Guadarranque and Cachon.

Capture of Gibraltar

captured GibraltarGibraltarcapture
In 1704, Anglo-Dutch forces captured Gibraltar from Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Habsburg claim to the Spanish throne.
In order to compensate for their lack of success the Alliance commanders resolved to capture Gibraltar, a small town on the southern Spanish coast.

Thirteenth Siege of Gibraltar

siege of Gibraltarbesieged GibraltarSiege of Gibraltar (1727)
Unsuccessful attempts by Spanish monarchs to regain Gibraltar were made with the siege of 1727 and again with the Great Siege of Gibraltar (1779 to 1783), during the American War of Independence.
The Siege of Gibraltar of 1727 (thirteenth siege of Gibraltar, second by Spain) saw Spanish forces besiege the British garrison of Gibraltar as part of the Anglo-Spanish War.

Peace of Utrecht

Treaty of UtrechtUtrechtTreaty of Utrecht (1713)
The territory was ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713.
In Article X, Spain ceded the ports of Gibraltar and Menorca, giving Britain a dominant position in the Western Mediterranean and gaining a monopoly over the Asiento or slave trade between Africa and Spanish America.

Operation Felix

FelixCodenamed "FelixGerman threat to capture "the Rock
Spanish dictator Francisco Franco's reluctance to allow the German Army onto Spanish soil frustrated a German plan to capture the Rock, codenamed Operation Felix.
Operation Felix was the codename for a proposed German seizure of Gibraltar during World War II, subject to the co-operation of Spanish caudillo Francisco Franco.

Evacuation of the Gibraltarian civilian population during World War II

civilian population was evacuatedevacuated during the Second World Warevacuated from Gibraltar along with most of the civilian population
During the Second World War, most of Gibraltar's civilian population was evacuated, mainly to London, but also to parts of Morocco and Madeira and to Gibraltar Camp in Jamaica.
The British Government's decision to enforce a mass evacuation of the civilian population during the Second World War from the Crown colony of Gibraltar, in order to increase the strength of The Rock with more British Armed Forces personnel, meant that most Gibraltarians (some for up to ten years) were forced to be away from Gibraltar and did not have a place they considered to be home.

Eighth Siege of Gibraltar

eighth siegea surprise attackcaptured
In 1462 Gibraltar was captured by Juan Alonso de Guzmán, 1st Duke of Medina Sidonia from the Emirate of Granada.
The Eighth Siege of Gibraltar (1462) was a successful effort by soldiers of the Kingdom of Castile to take the fortified town of Gibraltar from the Moors of the Emirate of Granada.