Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904
Gifford Pinchot portrait by Pirie MacDonald, 1909
Theodore Roosevelt at age 11
Portrait of Gifford Pinchot by Benjamin Johnston, c. 1901
The Roosevelt coat of arms as displayed on Theodore Roosevelt's bookplate, featuring three roses in a meadow (in reference to the family name, which means "rose field" in Dutch).
Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot on the steamer Mississippi, 1907
6-year-old Theodore and 5-year-old Elliott watch Lincoln's funeral procession from the second-floor window of their grandfather's mansion (at top left, facing the camera), Manhattan, April 25, 1865
Pinchot visiting summer campers attending the School of Forestry camp at Grey Towers (Pinchot is with the dog), 1910
Roosevelt's taxidermy kit
Time cover, November 23, 1925
Roosevelt's birthplace at 28 East 20th Street in Manhattan, New York City
Grey Towers near Milford, Pennsylvania, a National Historic Site
Roosevelt as New York State Assemblyman, 1883
Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. New York studio photo.
NYC Police Commissioner Roosevelt walks the beat with journalist Jacob Riis in 1894—Illustration from Riis's autobiography.
The Asiatic Squadron destroying the Spanish fleet in the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt
Colonel Roosevelt and the Rough Riders after capturing Kettle Hill in Cuba in July 1898, along with members of the 3rd Volunteers and the regular Army black 10th Cavalry
Bureau of Engraving and Printing engraved portrait of Roosevelt as President
Official White House portrait by John Singer Sargent
Roosevelt driving through a sequoia tree tunnel
The U.S.'s intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of Panama from Colombia in 1903
1903 cartoon: "Go Away, Little Man, and Don't Bother Me". Roosevelt intimidating Colombia to acquire the Panama Canal Zone.
1904 election results
Roosevelt family at Oyster Bay, circa 1903
Roosevelt shortly after leaving office, October 1910
Roosevelt standing next to the elephant he shot on safari
Punch depicts no-holds-barred fight between Taft and Roosevelt
Roosevelt campaigning for president, 1912
Theodore Roosevelt's medical x-ray on October 14, 1912, after the assassination attempt, showing the bullet that would remain inside his body for life
The bullet-damaged speech and eyeglass case on display at the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace in Manhattan, New York City
From left to right (seated): Fr. John Augustine Zahm, Cândido Rondon, Kermit Roosevelt, Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Only Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon, and the Brazilians traveled down the River of Doubt.
Former President Theodore Roosevelt in Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1914
Theodore and Edith Roosevelt's Grave at Youngs Memorial Cemetery
Part of the Works of Theodore Roosevelt
Sagamore Hill, Roosevelt's Long Island estate
"The Man of the Hour" Roosevelt as Warrior in 1898 and Peacemaker in 1905 settling war between Russia and Japan
1910 cartoon showing Roosevelt's many roles from 1899 to 1910
Theodore Roosevelt and pilot Hoxsey at St. Louis, October 11, 1910.

Pinchot enjoyed a close relationship with President Theodore Roosevelt, who shared Pinchot's views regarding the importance of conservation.

- Gifford Pinchot

Roosevelt worked closely with Interior Secretary James Rudolph Garfield and Chief of the United States Forest Service Gifford Pinchot to enact a series of conservation programs that often met with resistance from Western members of Congress, such as Charles William Fulton.

- Theodore Roosevelt
Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904

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Taft in 1909

William Howard Taft

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The 27th president of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth chief justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices.

The 27th president of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth chief justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices.

Taft in 1909
Yale College photograph of Taft
Sultan Jamalul Kiram II with William Howard Taft of the Philippine Commission in Jolo, Sulu (March 27, 1901)
Roosevelt introduces Taft as his crown prince: Puck magazine cover cartoon, 1906.
One of a series of candid photographs known as the Evolution of a Smile, taken just after a formal portrait session, as Taft learns by telephone from Roosevelt of his nomination for president.
1908 Taft/Sherman poster
1908 electoral vote results
1909 inauguration
Newton McConnell cartoon showing Canadian suspicions that Taft and others were only interested in Canada when prosperous.
Taft and Porfirio Díaz, Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, 1909
Official White House portrait of Taft by Anders Zorn, c. 1911
Taft promoted Associate Justice Edward Douglass White to be Chief Justice of the United States.
1909 Puck magazine cover: Roosevelt departs, entrusting his policies to Taft
Taft with Archibald Butt (second from right)
Taft and Roosevelt – political enemies in 1912
Campaign advertisement arguing Taft deserved a second term
Electoral vote by state, 1912. States won by Taft are in red.
Taft (left) with President Warren G. Harding and Robert Lincoln at the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial, May 30, 1922
Chief Justice Taft, c. 1921
The U.S. Supreme Court in 1925. Taft is seated in the bottom row, middle.
Time cover, June 30, 1924
Taft insisted that Charles Evans Hughes succeed him as chief justice.
Taft's headstone at Arlington National Cemetery
Four-cent stamp issued for Taft (1930)

Taft was elected president in 1908, the chosen successor of Theodore Roosevelt, but was defeated for reelection in 1912 by Woodrow Wilson after Roosevelt split the Republican vote by running as a third-party candidate.

Roosevelt was an ardent conservationist, assisted in this by like-minded appointees, including Interior Secretary James R. Garfield and Chief Forester Gifford Pinchot.

1912 United States presidential election

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The 32nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1912.

The 32nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1912.

A Punch cartoon by Leonard Raven-Hill, depicting the perceived aggression between Taft and Roosevelt.
Progressive convention, 1912
Eugene V. Debs's popular vote results were the highest for the Socialist party.
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302x302px
Results by state
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Wilson
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Taft
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Debs
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for all others including Debs
A continuous cartogram of the 1912 United States presidential election
Cartogram shaded according to percentage of the vote for Wilson
Cartogram shaded according to percentage of the vote for Taft
Cartogram shaded according to percentage of the vote for all others

Democratic Governor Woodrow Wilson unseated incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft and defeated former President Theodore Roosevelt, who ran under the banner of the new Progressive or "Bull Moose" Party.

Taft also fired popular conservationist Gifford Pinchot as head of the Bureau of Forestry in 1910.

The bull moose was the party's official mascot

Progressive Party (United States, 1912)

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The bull moose was the party's official mascot
The 1912 Progressive National Convention at the Chicago Coliseum
Theodore Roosevelt was the founder of the Progressive Party and thus is often associated with the party
16-page campaign booklet with the platform of the new Progressive Party
Roosevelt mixing ideologies in his speeches in this 1912 editorial cartoon by Karl K. Knecht (1883–1972) in the Evansville Courier
Roosevelt and Hiram Johnson after nomination
Pro-Roosevelt cartoon contrasts the Republican Party bosses in back row and Progressive Party reformers in front

The Progressive Party was a third party in the United States formed in 1912 by former president Theodore Roosevelt after he lost the presidential nomination of the Republican Party to his former protégé rival, incumbent president William Howard Taft.

Gifford Pinchot placed second in the Senate election in Pennsylvania, gathering 24% of the vote.

Richard A. Ballinger

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Mayor of Seattle, Washington, from 1904–1906, Commissioner of the General Land Office from 1907–1908 and U.S. Secretary of the Interior from 1909–1911.

Mayor of Seattle, Washington, from 1904–1906, Commissioner of the General Land Office from 1907–1908 and U.S. Secretary of the Interior from 1909–1911.

Ballinger's Secretary of the Interior nomination
Richard A. Ballinger House in Seattle, Washington

After serving as the mayor of Seattle, Ballinger joined the administration of President Theodore Roosevelt and served as commissioner of the General Land Office from 1907 until 1908.

Upon becoming Interior Secretary, Ballinger reassigned General Land Office investigator Louis R. Glavis, and ultimately fired him after he complained to Gifford Pinchot (head of the Forestry Bureau and thus responsible for the Chugach, although also subordinate to the Interior Secretary), President Taft and cooperated with the press.

United States Forest Service

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Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands.

Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands.

Map of all federally owned land in the United States. The green represents the Forest Service.
The Forest Products Laboratory, in Madison, Wisconsin.
Map of the nine regions
Patch of the Law Enforcement & Investigations unit
A horse patrol of the Law Enforcement & Investigations unit
Forest Service team uses a 106 mm Recoilless Rifle for avalanche control at Mammoth Mountain in the Inyo National Forest in California. Note the Minarets in background.
The U.S. Forest Service R&D lab in Olympia, Washington
More than 80% of the 193 million acres (780,000 km2) of land managed by the United States Forest Service is in the western states. This map shows USFS lands as a percentage of total land area in each state.
Smokey Bear poster
Lassie with Robert Bray as U.S. Forest Ranger Corey Stuart

The concept of national forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt's conservation group, Boone and Crockett Club, due to concerns regarding Yellowstone National Park beginning as early as 1875.

Gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt.

The Awakening: "Votes for Women" in 1915 Puck magazine

Progressive Era

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Period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States of America that spanned the 1890s to World War I.

Period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States of America that spanned the 1890s to World War I.

The Awakening: "Votes for Women" in 1915 Puck magazine
Charlotte Perkins Gilman (pictured) wrote these articles about feminism for the Atlanta Constitution, published on 10 December 1916.
Colorado judge Ben Lindsey, a pioneer in the establishment of juvenile court systems
Glass works in Indiana, from a 1908 photograph by Lewis Hine
Women's Suffrage Headquarters on Euclid Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio in 1912
President Wilson used tariff, currency, and antitrust laws to prime the pump and get the economy working.
Manhattan's Little Italy, Lower East Side, circa 1900.
Newspaper reporting the annexation of the Republic of Hawaii in 1898
A cartoon of Uncle Sam seated in restaurant looking at the bill of fare containing "Cuba steak", "Porto Rico pig", the "Philippine Islands" and the "Sandwich Islands" (Hawaii)
Breaker boys sort coal in an anthracite coal breaker near South Pittston, Pennsylvania, 1911

The national political leaders included Republicans Theodore Roosevelt, Robert M. La Follette, and Charles Evans Hughes, and Democrats William Jennings Bryan, Woodrow Wilson, and Al Smith.

Gifford Pinchot was an American forester and politician. Pinchot served as the first Chief of the United States Forest Service from 1905 until 1910 and was the 28th Governor of Pennsylvania, serving from 1923 to 1927, and again from 1931 to 1935. He was a member of the Republican Party for most of his life, though he also joined the Progressive Party for a brief period. Pinchot is known for reforming the management and development of forests in the United States and for advocating the conservation of the nation's reserves by planned use and renewal. He called it "the art of producing from the forest whatever it can yield for the service of man." Pinchot coined the term conservation ethic as applied to natural resources. Pinchot's main contribution was his leadership in promoting scientific forestry and emphasizing the controlled, profitable use of forests and other natural resources so they would be of maximum benefit to mankind. He was the first to demonstrate the practicality and profitability of managing forests for continuous cropping. His leadership put the conservation of forests high on America's priority list.

Republican Convention, The Coliseum, Chicago

1916 United States presidential election

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The 33rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1916.

The 33rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1916.

Republican Convention, The Coliseum, Chicago
Business advertising postcard exploiting public interest in the election; parts of Wilson's and Hughes' faces can be seen in this image, with the U.S. Capitol building in the background
U.S. Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes
Senator John W. Weeks from Massachusetts
Elihu Root from New York
Theodore E. Burton from Ohio
Former Vice President Charles W. Fairbanks from Indiana
Senator Albert B. Cummins from Iowa
<center>Theodore Roosevelt from New York (Refused nomination) </center>
<center>Victor Murdock from Kansas (Not formally nominated) </center>
<center>Governor Hiram Johnson of California (Declined interest) </center>
<center>Gifford Pinchot from Pennsylvania (Declined interest) </center>
<center>Newspaper editor Allan L. Benson from New York</center>
<center>State Representative James H. Maurer from Pennsylvania</center>
<center>Newspaper editor Arthur LeSueur from North Dakota</center>
Results by state
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Wilson
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for Hughes
Results by county, shaded according to percentage of the vote for all others
A continuous cartogram of the 1916 United States presidential election
Cartogram shaded according to percentage of the vote for Wilson
Cartogram shaded according to percentage of the vote for Hughes
Cartogram shaded according to percentage of the vote for all others

While conservative and progressive Republicans had been divided in the 1912 election between the candidacies of incumbent President William Howard Taft and former President Theodore Roosevelt, they largely united around Hughes in his bid to oust Wilson.

There was some talk of replacing Roosevelt with Hiram Johnson or Gifford Pinchot.

Cornelia Bryce Pinchot

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20th-century American conservationist, Progressive politician, and women’s rights activist who played a key role in the improvement of Grey Towers, the Pinchot family estate in Milford, Pennsylvania, which was donated to the U.S. Forest Service in 1963 and then designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1966.

20th-century American conservationist, Progressive politician, and women’s rights activist who played a key role in the improvement of Grey Towers, the Pinchot family estate in Milford, Pennsylvania, which was donated to the U.S. Forest Service in 1963 and then designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1966.

Cornelia Bryce Pinchot, left, with Mrs. J. Gordon Douglas, Mrs. Cornelius Tangeman, and Mrs. Katherine McCook Knox, women's suffrage parade, New York City, 1917.
Cornelia Pinchot and family at Grey Towers, Milford, Pennsylvania, c. 1921.
Gov. and Mrs. Gifford Pinchot, Pennsylvania Capitol Building, 1926.
Grey Towers, front facade, 2011.

A maternal great-granddaughter of Peter Cooper, founder of Cooper Union, and daughter of U.S. Congressman and Envoy Lloyd Stephens Bryce (1851–1917), she was the wife of Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946), the renowned conservationist and two-time Governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and was also a close friend of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt.