Gilded Age

The Gilded AgeGilded EraGilded-Age19th century capitalism20th centuryburgeoning American industryend of the nineteenth centuryfrom the late-19thgildedGilded eras
In United States history, the Gilded Age was an era that occurred during the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900.wikipedia
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Belle Époque

Belle EpoqueLa Belle ÉpoqueBelle-Époque
The early half of the Gilded Age roughly coincided with the mid-Victorian era in Britain and the Belle Époque in France.
In the United Kingdom, the Belle Époque overlapped with the late Victorian era and the Edwardian era in a period known as Pax Britannica; in Germany, it coincided with the reigns of William I, Frederick III and the Wilhelminism of Wilhelm II; in Italy, with the reigns of Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I and early of the reign of Victor Emmanuel III; in Spain, with the period known as the Restoration during the reigns of Alfonso XII and Alfonso XIII; in Portugal, the period was known as the Fontismo; in Romania, with the reign of Carol I in Greece, with the reign of George I; in Russia, with the reigns of Alexander III and Nicholas II; in Denmark, with the reigns of Christian IX and Frederick VIII; in Sweden and Norway, with the reign of Oscar II; in the Netherlands, with the reigns of William III and Wilhelmina; in Belgium, with the reign of Leopold II and early of the reign of Albert I; in Switzerland, it coincided with the beginnings of the Swiss federal state; in Austria-Hungary, with the reign of Franz Joseph I; in Serbia, with the reign of Peter I; in Canada, it coincided with the beginnings of the Canadian Confederation; in the United States, emerging from the Panic of 1873, the comparable period was the Gilded Age (1870s-1900s) ; in Australia, it coincided with the period known as the Australian Gold Rush; in Brazil, it started with the end of the Paraguayan War; and in Mexico, the period was known as the Porfiriato.

Panic of 1893

Depression of 1893financial panic of 18931893
Two major nationwide depressions—the Panic of 1873 and the Panic of 1893—interrupted growth and caused social and political upheavals.
During the Gilded Age of the 1870s and 1880s, the United States had experienced economic growth and expansion, but much of this expansion depended on high international commodity prices.

Periodization

periodperiodisationhistorical epochs
In the 1920s and '30s the metaphor "Gilded Age" began to be applied to a designated period in American history.
Some have a cultural usage ("the Gilded Age"), others refer to prominent historical events ("the Inter-War years: 1918–1939"), yet others are defined by decimal numbering systems ("the 1960s", "the 17th century").

The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today

The Gilded AgeGilded Age
The term for this period came into use in the 1920s and 1930s and was derived from writer Mark Twain's and Charles Dudley Warner's 1873 novel The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, which satirized an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding.
The novel gave the era its name: the period of U.S. history from the 1870s to about 1900 is now referred to as the Gilded Age.

Jay Gould

GouldGouldsGould, Jay
Wealthy industrialists and financiers such as John D. Rockefeller, Jay Gould, Henry Clay Frick, Andrew W. Mellon, Andrew Carnegie, Henry Flagler, Henry H. Rogers, J. P. Morgan, Leland Stanford, Meyer Guggenheim, Jacob Schiff, Charles Crocker, Cornelius Vanderbilt would sometimes be labeled "robber barons" by their critics, who argue their fortunes were made at the expense of the working class, by chicanery and a betrayal of democracy.
Jason Gould (May 27, 1836 – December 2, 1892) was an American railroad magnate and financial speculator who is generally identified as one of the robber barons of the Gilded Age.

J. P. Morgan

J.P. MorganJ. Pierpont MorganJohn Pierpont Morgan
Wealthy industrialists and financiers such as John D. Rockefeller, Jay Gould, Henry Clay Frick, Andrew W. Mellon, Andrew Carnegie, Henry Flagler, Henry H. Rogers, J. P. Morgan, Leland Stanford, Meyer Guggenheim, Jacob Schiff, Charles Crocker, Cornelius Vanderbilt would sometimes be labeled "robber barons" by their critics, who argue their fortunes were made at the expense of the working class, by chicanery and a betrayal of democracy.
John Pierpont Morgan Sr. (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance on Wall Street throughout the Gilded Age.

Andrew Mellon

Andrew W. MellonMellonAndrew William Mellon
Wealthy industrialists and financiers such as John D. Rockefeller, Jay Gould, Henry Clay Frick, Andrew W. Mellon, Andrew Carnegie, Henry Flagler, Henry H. Rogers, J. P. Morgan, Leland Stanford, Meyer Guggenheim, Jacob Schiff, Charles Crocker, Cornelius Vanderbilt would sometimes be labeled "robber barons" by their critics, who argue their fortunes were made at the expense of the working class, by chicanery and a betrayal of democracy.
He was also an influential donor to the Republican Party during the Gilded Age and the Progressive Era.

History of the United States

American historyU.S. historyUnited States history
In United States history, the Gilded Age was an era that occurred during the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900.
Since the days of Charles A. Beard and Matthew Josephson, some historians have argued that the United States was effectively plutocratic for at least part of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era.

Progressive Era

ProgressiveProgressive movementProgressives
It was followed in the 1890s by the Progressive Era.
Disturbed by the waste, inefficiency, stubbornness, corruption, and injustices of the Gilded Age, the Progressives were committed to changing and reforming every aspect of the state, society and economy.

People's Party (United States)

PopulistPopulist PartyPeople's Party
Historian Howard Zinn argues that this disparity along with precarious working and living conditions for the working classes prompted the rise of populist, anarchist, and socialist movements.
Historians see the Populists as a reaction to the power of corporate interests in the Gilded Age, but they debate the degree to which the Populists were anti-modern and nativist.

Third Party System

Thirdof that era1930s
Gilded Age politics, called the Third Party System, featured intense competition between two major parties, with minor parties coming and going, especially on issues of concern to prohibitionists, to labor unions and to farmers.
This period, the later part of which is often termed the Gilded Age, is defined by its contrast with the eras of the Second Party System and the Fourth Party System.

Robber baron (industrialist)

robber baronrobber baronstycoon
Wealthy industrialists and financiers such as John D. Rockefeller, Jay Gould, Henry Clay Frick, Andrew W. Mellon, Andrew Carnegie, Henry Flagler, Henry H. Rogers, J. P. Morgan, Leland Stanford, Meyer Guggenheim, Jacob Schiff, Charles Crocker, Cornelius Vanderbilt would sometimes be labeled "robber barons" by their critics, who argue their fortunes were made at the expense of the working class, by chicanery and a betrayal of democracy.
According to Nevins, Gilded Age capitalists, by imposing order and stability on competitive business, made the United States the foremost economy by the 20th century.

Vernon Louis Parrington

Vernon L. ParringtonMain Currents in American ThoughtVernon Parrington
The term was adopted by literary and cultural critics as well as historians, including Van Wyck Brooks, Lewis Mumford, Charles Austin Beard, Mary Ritter Beard, Vernon Louis Parrington, and Matthew Josephson.
Parrington defended the doctrine of state sovereignty, and sought to disassociate it from the cause of slavery, claiming that the association of those two causes had proven "disastrous to American democracy," removing the last brake on the growth of corporate power in the Gilded Age as the federal government began shielding capitalists from local and state regulation.

Golden age (metaphor)

golden agegolden eraclassic
The book (co-written with Charles Dudley Warner) satirized the promised "golden age" after the Civil War, portrayed as an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding of economic expansion.

Wall Street

WallWall Street (Manhattan)financial
Investors in London and Paris poured money into the railroads through the American financial market centered in Wall Street.
Wall Street's architecture is generally rooted in the Gilded Age.

Charles Dudley Warner

Warner, Charles DudleyC. D. WarnerCharles Warner
The term for this period came into use in the 1920s and 1930s and was derived from writer Mark Twain's and Charles Dudley Warner's 1873 novel The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, which satirized an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding. The book (co-written with Charles Dudley Warner) satirized the promised "golden age" after the Civil War, portrayed as an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding of economic expansion.
Called The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, it gave that era of American history its name.

Stalwarts (politics)

StalwartStalwartsStalwart (politics)
This corruption divided the Republican party into two different factions: the Stalwarts led by Roscoe Conkling and the Half-Breeds led by James G. Blaine.
The Stalwarts were a faction of the Republican Party that existed briefly in the United States during and after Reconstruction and the Gilded Age during the 1870s and 1880s.

Mugwumps

Mugwump
Accordingly, there were widespread calls for reform, such as Civil Service Reform led by the Bourbon Democrats and Republican Mugwumps.
Their idealism and reform sensibilities led them to oppose the political corruption in the politics of the Gilded Age.

Crédit Mobilier scandal

Crédit Mobilier of America scandalCredit MobilierCredit Mobilier scandal
Major scandal reached into Congress with the Crédit Mobilier of America scandal of 1872, and disgraced the White House during the Grant Administration (1869–1877).
The scandal caused widespread public distrust of Congress and the federal government during the Gilded Age.

Andrew Carnegie

CarnegieCarnegiesCarnegie family
Wealthy industrialists and financiers such as John D. Rockefeller, Jay Gould, Henry Clay Frick, Andrew W. Mellon, Andrew Carnegie, Henry Flagler, Henry H. Rogers, J. P. Morgan, Leland Stanford, Meyer Guggenheim, Jacob Schiff, Charles Crocker, Cornelius Vanderbilt would sometimes be labeled "robber barons" by their critics, who argue their fortunes were made at the expense of the working class, by chicanery and a betrayal of democracy.
Carnegie is buried only a few yards away from union organizer Samuel Gompers, another important figure of industry in the Gilded Age.

Gilding

gildedgiltgilder
The term for this period came into use in the 1920s and 1930s and was derived from writer Mark Twain's and Charles Dudley Warner's 1873 novel The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, which satirized an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding. The book (co-written with Charles Dudley Warner) satirized the promised "golden age" after the Civil War, portrayed as an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding of economic expansion.

Political machine

machine politicsmachinepolitical boss
Large cities became dominated by political machines in which constituents supported a candidate in exchange for anticipated patronage.
This system of political control—known as "bossism"—emerged particularly in the Gilded Age.

First Transcontinental Railroad

transcontinental railroadPacific Railroadrailroad
In 1869, the First Transcontinental Railroad opened up the far-west mining and ranching regions.
The scandal hit epic proportions in the 1872 United States presidential election, which saw the re-election of Ulysses S. Grant and became the biggest scandal of the Gilded Age.

Charles A. Beard

Charles Austin BeardCharles BeardBeard
The term was adopted by literary and cultural critics as well as historians, including Van Wyck Brooks, Lewis Mumford, Charles Austin Beard, Mary Ritter Beard, Vernon Louis Parrington, and Matthew Josephson.
Dealing with the Reconstruction era and the Gilded Age, disciples of Beard such as Howard Beale and C. Vann Woodward focused on greed and economic causation and emphasized the centrality of corruption.

Panic of 1873

Financial Panic of 1873silver crisis of 18731873
Two major nationwide depressions—the Panic of 1873 and the Panic of 1893—interrupted growth and caused social and political upheavals.
Banking panics of the gilded age (Cambridge University Press, 2006) contents