Giordano Bruno

BrunoBruno, GiordanoBruno's cosmologyExecution of Giordano BrunoGiordano BrunistiGiordano Bruno AwardRevolt of the CitySe non è vero è ben trovatose non è vero, è molto ben trovato
Giordano Bruno (, ; Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; born Filippo Bruno, 1548 – 17 February 1600) was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, cosmological theorist, and Hermetic occultist.wikipedia
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Pantheism

pantheisticpantheistpantheists
Bruno's pantheism was also a matter of grave concern, as was his teaching of the transmigration of the soul/reincarnation.
A pantheistic stance was also taken in the 16th century by philosopher and cosmologist Giordano Bruno.

Hermeticism

HermeticHermetismHermetic philosophy
Historian Frances Yates argues that Bruno was deeply influenced by Arab astrology (particularly the philosophy of Averroes ), Neoplatonism, Renaissance Hermeticism, and Genesis-like legends surrounding the Egyptian god Thoth.
Many writers, including Lactantius, Cyprian of Carthage, Augustine of Hippo, Marsilio Ficino, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Giordano Bruno, Tommaso Campanella, Sir Thomas Browne, and Ralph Waldo Emerson, considered Hermes Trismegistus to be a wise pagan prophet who foresaw the coming of Christianity.

Exoplanet

extrasolar planetexoplanetsplanet
He proposed that the stars were distant suns surrounded by their own planets, and he raised the possibility that these planets might foster life of their own, a philosophical position known as cosmic pluralism.
In the sixteenth century, the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno, an early supporter of the Copernican theory that Earth and other planets orbit the Sun (heliocentrism), put forward the view that the fixed stars are similar to the Sun and are likewise accompanied by planets.

Copernican heliocentrism

Copernican systemCopernican theoryCopernican model
He is known for his cosmological theories, which conceptually extended the then-novel Copernican model.
Gilles Ménage, shortly after the trials of Galileo and Giordano Bruno, amended an accusative (identifying the object of the verb) with a nominative (the subject of the sentence), and vice versa, so that the impiety accusation fell over the heliocentric sustainer.

Mnemonic

mnemonicsmnemonic devicemnemonic aid
In addition to cosmology, Bruno also wrote extensively on the art of memory, a loosely organized group of mnemonic techniques and principles.
Giordano Bruno included a memoria technica in his treatise De umbris idearum, as part of his study of the ars generalis of Llull.

Freethought

freethinkerfreethinkersfreethinking
Bruno's case is still considered a landmark in the history of free thought and the emerging sciences.
It was the year of the execution in Italy of Giordano Bruno, a former Dominican friar, by the Inquisition.

Naples

Naples, ItalyNapoliNeapolitan
In his youth he was sent to Naples to be educated.
The city was a major cultural centre during the Baroque era, being home to artists such as Caravaggio, Salvator Rosa and Bernini, philosophers such as Bernardino Telesio, Giordano Bruno, Tommaso Campanella and Giambattista Vico, and writers such as Giambattista Marino.

Frances Yates

Frances A. YatesYates, Frances A.Frances Amelia Yates
Historian Frances Yates argues that Bruno was deeply influenced by Arab astrology (particularly the philosophy of Averroes ), Neoplatonism, Renaissance Hermeticism, and Genesis-like legends surrounding the Egyptian god Thoth.
Through her research into Florio, Yates had become intrigued by one of his associates, Giordano Bruno.

Art of memory

Mnemotechnicsmemory techniquesairt of memorie
In addition to cosmology, Bruno also wrote extensively on the art of memory, a loosely organized group of mnemonic techniques and principles.
Perhaps following the example of Metrodorus of Scepsis, vaguely described in Quintilian's Institutio oratoria, Giordano Bruno, a defrocked Dominican, used a variation of the art in which the trained memory was based in some fashion upon the zodiac.

San Domenico Maggiore

San DomenicoSan Domenico Maggiore, NaplesChurch of San Domenico Maggiore
At the age of 17, he entered the Dominican Order at the monastery of San Domenico Maggiore in Naples, taking the name Giordano, after Giordano Crispo, his metaphysics tutor.
The philosopher friar and heretic, Giordano Bruno, also lived here at some point.

Campania

Campania RegionCampanianCampagnia
Born Filippo Bruno in Nola (a comune in the modern-day province of Naples, in the Southern Italian region of Campania, then part of the Kingdom of Naples) in 1548, he was the son of Giovanni Bruno, a soldier, and Fraulissa Savolino.
During the Baroque era it was home to artists including Caravaggio, Rosa and Bernini; philosophers such as Telesio, Bruno, Campanella and Vico; and writers such as Battista Marino.

Roman Inquisition

InquisitionRoman Catholic InquisitionItalian Inquisition
Starting in 1593, Bruno was tried for heresy by the Roman Inquisition on charges of denial of several core Catholic doctrines, including eternal damnation, the Trinity, the divinity of Christ, the virginity of Mary, and transubstantiation.
Among the subjects of this Inquisition were Franciscus Patricius, Giordano Bruno, Tommaso Campanella, Gerolamo Cardano, and Cesare Cremonini.

Cosmic pluralism

plurality of worldsmultiple world systemsPluralism
He proposed that the stars were distant suns surrounded by their own planets, and he raised the possibility that these planets might foster life of their own, a philosophical position known as cosmic pluralism.
Giordano Bruno introduced in his works the idea of multiple worlds instantiating the infinite possibilities of a pristine, indivisible One.

Circe

Circe in the artsCantus CircaeusCerca
During this period, he published several works on mnemonics, including De umbris idearum (On the Shadows of Ideas, 1582), Ars Memoriae (The Art of Memory, 1582), and Cantus Circaeus (Circe's Song, 1582).
The other Italian author was the esoteric philosopher Giordano Bruno, who wrote in Latin.

Infinity

infiniteinfinitely
He also insisted that the universe is infinite and could have no "center".
Eight years later, in 1584, the Italian philosopher and astronomer Giordano Bruno proposed an unbounded universe in On the Infinite Universe and Worlds: "Innumerable suns exist; innumerable earths revolve around these suns in a manner similar to the way the seven planets revolve around our sun. Living beings inhabit these worlds."

Philip Sidney

Sir Philip SidneySidneyPhilip Sydney
Given that Bruno dedicated various works to the likes of King Henry III, Sir Philip Sidney, Michel de Castelnau (French Ambassador to England), and possibly Pope Pius V, it is apparent that this wanderer had risen sharply in status and moved in powerful circles.
In the same year, he made a visit to Oxford University with Giordano Bruno, the polymath known for his cosmological theories, such as affirming Copernicus at a time when many others did not, and speculating that the stars were other suns with planets, among other ideas, and who subsequently dedicated two books to Sidney.

Robert Bellarmine

Cardinal BellarmineBellarmineSt. Robert Bellarmine
His trial was overseen by the Inquisitor Cardinal Bellarmine, who demanded a full recantation, which Bruno eventually refused.
He is also widely remembered for his role in the Giordano Bruno affair, the Galileo affair, and the trial of Friar Fulgenzio Manfredi.

De umbris idearum

During this period, he published several works on mnemonics, including De umbris idearum (On the Shadows of Ideas, 1582), Ars Memoriae (The Art of Memory, 1582), and Cantus Circaeus (Circe's Song, 1582).
De Umbris Idearum (Latin for "On the Shadows of Ideas") is a book written in 1582 by Italian Dominican friar and cosmological theorist Giordano Bruno.

Hermetica

Corpus HermeticumHermetic CorpusHermetic
Giordano Bruno (, ; Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; born Filippo Bruno, 1548 – 17 February 1600) was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, cosmological theorist, and Hermetic occultist.
The Hermetica provided a seminal impetus in the development of Renaissance thought and culture, having a profound impact on alchemy and modern magic as well as influencing philosophers such as Giordano Bruno and Pico della Mirandola, Ficino's student.

Astrological allegory

cosmological tractcosmological allegories
During that time Bruno completed and published some of his most important works, the six "Italian Dialogues", including the cosmological tracts La Cena de le Ceneri (The Ash Wednesday Supper, 1584), De la Causa, Principio et Uno (On Cause, Principle and Unity, 1584), De l'Infinito, Universo e Mondi (On the Infinite, Universe and Worlds, 1584) as well as Lo Spaccio de la Bestia Trionfante (The Expulsion of the Triumphant Beast, 1584) and De gl' Heroici Furori (On the Heroic Frenzies, 1585).
Some of Giordano Bruno's most important works are astrological allegories or cosmological tracts.

Pope Clement VIII

Clement VIIIIppolito AldobrandiniClement IIX
On 20 January 1600, Pope Clement VIII declared Bruno a heretic, and the Inquisition issued a sentence of death.
He had little pity for his opponents, presiding over the trial and execution of Giordano Bruno and implementing strict measures against Jewish residents of the Papal States.

Heresy in Christianity

heresyhereticalheretics
Starting in 1593, Bruno was tried for heresy by the Roman Inquisition on charges of denial of several core Catholic doctrines, including eternal damnation, the Trinity, the divinity of Christ, the virginity of Mary, and transubstantiation.
The last person to be burned alive at the stake on orders from Rome was Giordano Bruno, executed in 1600 for a collection of heretical beliefs including Copernicanism, belief of an unlimited universe with innumerable inhabited worlds, opinions contrary to the Catholic faith about the Trinity, divinity of Christ, and Incarnation.

Nola

Festival of the LiliesPiazzolla di NolaNola, Italy
Born Filippo Bruno in Nola (a comune in the modern-day province of Naples, in the Southern Italian region of Campania, then part of the Kingdom of Naples) in 1548, he was the son of Giovanni Bruno, a soldier, and Fraulissa Savolino.
The nearby Cicala Castle was the birthplace of Giordano Bruno (b.

Campo de' Fiori

Campo dei FioriCampo di FioreCampo de 'Fiori
The Inquisition found him guilty, and he was burned at the stake in Rome's Campo de' Fiori in 1600.
Here, on 17 February 1600, the philosopher Giordano Bruno was burnt alive for heresy, and all of his works were placed on the Index of Forbidden Books by the Holy Office.

Dorothea Waley Singer

D.W. SingerDorothea Waley Cohen
As D.W. Singer, a Bruno biographer, notes, "The question has sometimes been raised as to whether Bruno became a Protestant, but it is intrinsically most unlikely that he accepted membership in Calvin's communion" During his Venetian trial he told inquisitors that while in Geneva he told the Marchese de Vico of Naples, who was notable for helping Italian refugees in Geneva, "I did not intend to adopt the religion of the city. I desired to stay there only that I might live at liberty and in security."
In the early 1930s Dorothea Singer began to study the work of Giordano Bruno, producing a first draft of a monograph on the subject by 1932.