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GitHub Inc. is a web-based hosting service for version control using Git.
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Tom Preston-Werner

On July 27, 2009, in another talk delivered at Yahoo!, Tom Preston-Werner announced that GitHub had grown to host 90,000 unique public repositories, 12,000 having been forked at least once, for a total of 135,000 repositories. The site was launched in April 2008 by Tom Preston-Werner, Chris Wanstrath, P. J. Hyett and Scott Chacon after it had been made available for a few months prior as a beta release.
He is best known as the founder and former CEO of GitHub, a Git repository web-based hosting service, which he co-founded in 2008 with Chris Wanstrath and PJ Hyett.

SourceForge

sourceforge.netsf.netJanuary 2011 attacks on SourceForge.net
On June 2, 2011, ReadWriteWeb reported that GitHub had surpassed SourceForge and Google Code in total number of commits for the period of January to May 2011. Concerns over the sale bolstered interest in competitors: Bitbucket (owned by Atlassian), GitLab (a commercial open source product that also runs a hosted service version) and SourceForge (owned by BIZX, LLC) reported that they had seen spikes in new users intending to migrate projects from GitHub to their respective services.
In response to the DevShare adware many users and projects migrated to GitHub, other software hosting facilities, or self-host their software.

Bitbucket

StashBitbucket Server
Concerns over the sale bolstered interest in competitors: Bitbucket (owned by Atlassian), GitLab (a commercial open source product that also runs a hosted service version) and SourceForge (owned by BIZX, LLC) reported that they had seen spikes in new users intending to migrate projects from GitHub to their respective services.
It is similar to GitHub, which primarily uses Git.

PowerShell

cmdletWindows PowerShellCmdlets
Microsoft had become a significant user of GitHub, using it to host open source projects and development tools such as Chakra Core, PowerShell, and Visual Studio Code, and has backed other open source projects such as Linux, and developed Git Virtual File System—a Git extension for managing large-scale repositories (and itself has been adopted by GitHub).
The source code was published on GitHub.

P. J. Hyett

The site was launched in April 2008 by Tom Preston-Werner, Chris Wanstrath, P. J. Hyett and Scott Chacon after it had been made available for a few months prior as a beta release.
P. J. Hyett (born 1982/1983) is an American software developer and technology entrepreneur, and a co-founder of GitHub, a social network centered around software development, which he created with Tom Preston-Werner and Chris Wanstrath in 2008.

Visual Studio Code

Microsoft Visual Studio Code
Microsoft had become a significant user of GitHub, using it to host open source projects and development tools such as Chakra Core, PowerShell, and Visual Studio Code, and has backed other open source projects such as Linux, and developed Git Virtual File System—a Git extension for managing large-scale repositories (and itself has been adopted by GitHub).
On November 18, 2015, Visual Studio Code was released under the MIT License and its source code posted to GitHub.

Chris Wanstrath

The site was launched in April 2008 by Tom Preston-Werner, Chris Wanstrath, P. J. Hyett and Scott Chacon after it had been made available for a few months prior as a beta release.
He is the co-founder of GitHub, a social network centered around software development, which he created with Tom Preston-Werner in 2008.

Fork (software development)

forkforkedforks
At that time, about 6,200 repositories had been forked at least once and 4,600 had been merged. The site provides social networking-like functions such as feeds, followers, wikis (using wiki software called Gollum) and a social network graph to display how developers work on their versions ("forks") of a repository and what fork (and branch within that fork) is newest.
With a DVCS such as Mercurial or Git, the normal way to contribute to a project, is to first create a personal branch of the repository, independent of the main repository, and later seek to have your changes integrated with it. Sites such as GitHub, Bitbucket and Launchpad provide free DVCS hosting expressly supporting independent branches, such that the technical, social and financial barriers to forking a source code repository are massively reduced, and GitHub uses "fork" as its term for this method of contribution to a project.

Open allocation

Employees can choose to work on projects that interest them (open allocation).
GitHub and Valve, in the early 2010s, became well known for having such environments.

Three.js

threejs
3D render files that can be previewed using a new integrated STL file viewer that displays the files on a "3D canvas". The viewer is powered by WebGL and Three.js.
The source code is hosted in a repository on GitHub.

Travis CI

Travis-ci
GitHub partnered with Bitnami, Crowdflower, DigitalOcean, DNSimple, HackHands, Namecheap, Orchestrate, Screenhero, SendGrid, Stripe, Travis CI and Unreal Engine to launch the program.
Travis CI is a hosted, distributed continuous integration service used to build and test software projects hosted at GitHub.

Gollum Wiki

Gollum
The site provides social networking-like functions such as feeds, followers, wikis (using wiki software called Gollum) and a social network graph to display how developers work on their versions ("forks") of a repository and what fork (and branch within that fork) is newest.
It is the wiki system used by the GitHub web hosting system.

Git Virtual File System

Microsoft had become a significant user of GitHub, using it to host open source projects and development tools such as Chakra Core, PowerShell, and Visual Studio Code, and has backed other open source projects such as Linux, and developed Git Virtual File System—a Git extension for managing large-scale repositories (and itself has been adopted by GitHub).
In November 2017, GitHub announced that it would support GVFS.

Software license

licenselicensedlicenses
For that reason, it is essential for users and developers intending to use a piece of software found on GitHub to read the software license in the repository (usually found in a top-level file called "LICENSE", "LICENSE.txt", or similar) to determine if it meets their needs.
Examples of this are unauthorized software leaks or software projects which are placed on public software repositories like GitHub without a specified license.

Microsoft

Microsoft CorporationMSMicrosoft Corp.
On June 4, 2018, Microsoft announced it had reached an agreement to acquire GitHub for US$7.5 billion.
On June 4, 2018 Microsoft officially announced the acquisition of GitHub for $7.5 billion, a deal that is expected to close by the end of the year.

Andreessen Horowitz

Andreessen-HorowitzAndreesen HorowitzAndreessen Horrowitz
On July 9, 2012, Peter Levine, general partner at GitHub investor Andreessen Horowitz, stated that GitHub had been growing revenue at 300% annually since 2008 "profitably nearly the entire way".
They invested $100 million in GitHub, which netted over $1 billion for the fund when GitHub was acquired by Microsoft for $7.5 billion.

GitHub Pages

GitHub Pages: small websites can be hosted from public repositories on GitHub. The URL format is https://username.github.io.
GitHub Pages is a web hosting service offered by GitHub for hosting static web pages for GitHub users, user blogs, project documentation,

Open-source software

open sourceopen-sourceopen source software
GitHub offers plans for both private repositories and free accounts which are commonly used to host open-source software projects.
The projects are frequently hosted and published on sites like Launchpad, Bitbucket, and GitHub.

Chakra (JavaScript engine)

ChakraChakra (JavaScript)Chakra Core
Microsoft had become a significant user of GitHub, using it to host open source projects and development tools such as Chakra Core, PowerShell, and Visual Studio Code, and has backed other open source projects such as Linux, and developed Git Virtual File System—a Git extension for managing large-scale repositories (and itself has been adopted by GitHub).
Microsoft has also created a project on GitHub that allows Node.js to use ChakraCore as its JavaScript engine instead of V8.

Figure Eight Inc.

Crowdflower
GitHub partnered with Bitnami, Crowdflower, DigitalOcean, DNSimple, HackHands, Namecheap, Orchestrate, Screenhero, SendGrid, Stripe, Travis CI and Unreal Engine to launch the program.
Figure Eight works with companies such as Autodesk, Google, Facebook, Twitter, Cisco Systems, GitHub, Mozilla, VMware, eBay, Etsy, Toyota and American Express.

Code review

peer code reviewcode reviewsreviews
With a registered user account, users are able to have discussions, manage repositories, submit contributions to others' repositories, and review changes to code.
To perform change-based reviews smoothly, authors and reviewers use software tools: informal ones such as pastebins and IRC, or specialized tools designed for peer code review such as Gerrit and Github's pull requests.

Markdown

.mdown
Documentation, including automatically rendered README files in a variety of Markdown-like file formats (see README files on GitHub)
Sites like GitHub, Bitbucket, Reddit, Diaspora, Stack Exchange, OpenStreetMap, and SourceForge use variants of Markdown to facilitate discussion between users.

Git

git repositoryGitHubgit version control
GitHub Inc. is a web-based hosting service for version control using Git.
Best known are probably GitHub and Bitbucket offerings, but many others are available, like GitLab, GerritForge, etc.

Flat organization

flathorizontalhorizontal organization
GitHub, Inc. was originally a flat organization with no middle managers; in other words, "everyone is a manager" (self-management).
GitHub Inc., which, like Valve, uses open allocation. However, in response to criticism, GitHub introduced a layer of middle management in 2014.

Comparison of source code hosting facilities

a number of providersSource code repositorycode-hosting site
Comparison of source code hosting facilities