GitHub

github.comGistOctocatGitHub distributionGitHub Inc.GitHub Project Hosting
GitHub Inc. is a web-based hosting service for version control using Git.wikipedia
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Chris Wanstrath

GitHub was developed by Chris Wanstrath, PJ Hyett, Tom Preston-Werner and Scott Chacon using Ruby on Rails, and started in February 2008.
He is the co-founder and former CEO of GitHub, a social network centered around software development, which he created with Tom Preston-Werner in 2008.

Tom Preston-Werner

GitHub was developed by Chris Wanstrath, PJ Hyett, Tom Preston-Werner and Scott Chacon using Ruby on Rails, and started in February 2008.
He is best known as the founder and former CEO of GitHub, a Git repository web-based hosting service, which he co-founded in 2008 with Chris Wanstrath and PJ Hyett.

SourceForge

sourceforge.netJanuary 2011 attacks on SourceForge.netsf.net
On June 2, 2011, ReadWriteWeb reported that GitHub had surpassed SourceForge and Google Code in total number of commits for the period of January to May 2011. Concerns over the sale bolstered interest in competitors: Bitbucket (owned by Atlassian), GitLab (a commercial open source product that also runs a hosted service version) and SourceForge (owned by BIZX, LLC) reported that they had seen spikes in new users intending to migrate projects from GitHub to their respective services.
In response to the DevShare adware many users and projects migrated to GitHub, other software hosting facilities, or self-host their software.

Fork (software development)

forkforkedforks
At that time, about 6,200 repositories had been forked at least once and 4,600 had been merged. The site provides social networking-like functions such as feeds, followers, wikis (using wiki software called Gollum) and a social network graph to display how developers work on their versions ("forks") of a repository and what fork (and branch within that fork) is newest.
With a DVCS such as Mercurial or Git, the normal way to contribute to a project, is to first create a personal branch of the repository, independent of the main repository, and later seek to have your changes integrated with it. Sites such as GitHub, Bitbucket and Launchpad provide free DVCS hosting expressly supporting independent branches, such that the technical, social and financial barriers to forking a source code repository are massively reduced, and GitHub uses "fork" as its term for this method of contribution to a project.

PowerShell

cmdletWindows PowerShellCmdlets
Microsoft had become a significant user of GitHub, using it to host open source projects and development tools such as Chakra Core, PowerShell, and Visual Studio Code, and has backed other open source projects such as Linux, and developed Git Virtual File System—a Git extension for managing large-scale repositories (and itself has been adopted by GitHub).
The source code was published on GitHub.

Bitbucket

Bitbucket ServerStash
Concerns over the sale bolstered interest in competitors: Bitbucket (owned by Atlassian), GitLab (a commercial open source product that also runs a hosted service version) and SourceForge (owned by BIZX, LLC) reported that they had seen spikes in new users intending to migrate projects from GitHub to their respective services.
It is similar to GitHub, which primarily uses Git.

Andreessen Horowitz

a16zAndreesen HorowitzAndreessen
On July 9, 2012, Peter Levine, general partner at GitHub investor Andreessen Horowitz, stated that GitHub had been growing revenue at 300% annually since 2008 "profitably nearly the entire way".
They invested $100 million in GitHub, which netted over $1 billion for the fund when GitHub was acquired by Microsoft for $7.5 billion.

Git

git repositorygetGit Control
GitHub Inc. is a web-based hosting service for version control using Git.
Best known are probably GitHub and Bitbucket offerings, but many others are available, like GitLab, GerritForge, etc.

Git Virtual File System

Microsoft had become a significant user of GitHub, using it to host open source projects and development tools such as Chakra Core, PowerShell, and Visual Studio Code, and has backed other open source projects such as Linux, and developed Git Virtual File System—a Git extension for managing large-scale repositories (and itself has been adopted by GitHub).
In November 2017, GitHub announced that it would support GVFS.

Open allocation

Employees can choose to work on projects that interest them (open allocation).
GitHub and Valve, in the early 2010s, became well known for having such environments.

P. J. Hyett

GitHub was developed by Chris Wanstrath, PJ Hyett, Tom Preston-Werner and Scott Chacon using Ruby on Rails, and started in February 2008.
P. J. Hyett (born 1982/1983) is an American software developer and technology entrepreneur, and a co-founder of GitHub, a social network centered around software development, which he created with Tom Preston-Werner and Chris Wanstrath in 2008.

Microsoft

Microsoft CorporationMSMicrosoft Corp.
On June 4, 2018, Microsoft announced it had reached an agreement to acquire GitHub for US$7.5 billion.
On June 4, 2018, Microsoft officially announced the acquisition of GitHub for $7.5 billion, a deal that is expected to close by the end of the year.

Visual Studio Code

Microsoft Visual Studio Code
Microsoft had become a significant user of GitHub, using it to host open source projects and development tools such as Chakra Core, PowerShell, and Visual Studio Code, and has backed other open source projects such as Linux, and developed Git Virtual File System—a Git extension for managing large-scale repositories (and itself has been adopted by GitHub).
On November 18, 2015, Visual Studio Code was released under the MIT License and its source code posted to GitHub.

Chakra (JavaScript engine)

ChakraChakra Core
Microsoft had become a significant user of GitHub, using it to host open source projects and development tools such as Chakra Core, PowerShell, and Visual Studio Code, and has backed other open source projects such as Linux, and developed Git Virtual File System—a Git extension for managing large-scale repositories (and itself has been adopted by GitHub).
Microsoft has also created a project on GitHub that allows Node.js to use ChakraCore as its JavaScript engine instead of V8.

Gollum Wiki

Gollum
The site provides social networking-like functions such as feeds, followers, wikis (using wiki software called Gollum) and a social network graph to display how developers work on their versions ("forks") of a repository and what fork (and branch within that fork) is newest.
It is the wiki system used by the GitHub web hosting system.

Three.js

threejs
3D render files that can be previewed using a new integrated STL file viewer that displays the files on a "3D canvas". The viewer is powered by WebGL and Three.js.
The source code is hosted in a repository on GitHub.

GitHub Pages

GitHub Pages: small websites can be hosted from public repositories on GitHub. The URL format is https://username.github.io.
GitHub Pages is a web hosting service offered by GitHub for hosting static web pages for GitHub users, user blogs, project documentation,

Google Developers

Google Codecode.google.comdeveloper products
On June 2, 2011, ReadWriteWeb reported that GitHub had surpassed SourceForge and Google Code in total number of commits for the period of January to May 2011.
GitHub

Flat organization

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GitHub, Inc. was originally a flat organization with no middle managers; in other words, "everyone is a manager" (self-management).
GitHub Inc., which, like Valve, uses open allocation. However, in response to criticism, GitHub introduced a layer of middle management in 2014.

Software license

licenselicensedlicenses
For that reason, it is essential for users and developers intending to use a piece of software found on GitHub to read the software license in the repository (usually found in a top-level file called "LICENSE", "LICENSE.txt", or similar) to determine if it meets their needs.
Examples of this are unauthorized software leaks or software projects which are placed on public software repositories like GitHub without a specified license.

Travis CI

Travis-ci
GitHub partnered with Bitnami, Crowdflower, DigitalOcean, DNSimple, HackHands, Namecheap, Orchestrate, Screenhero, SendGrid, Stripe, Travis CI and Unreal Engine to launch the program.
Travis CI is a hosted, distributed continuous integration service used to build and test software projects hosted at GitHub.

Code review

code reviewspeer code reviewReviews
With a registered user account, users are able to have discussions, manage repositories, submit contributions to others' repositories, and review changes to code.
To perform change-based reviews smoothly, authors and reviewers use software tools: informal ones such as pastebins and IRC, or specialized tools designed for peer code review such as Gerrit and Github's pull requests.

GitLab

Gitlab Issuesgitlab.com
Concerns over the sale bolstered interest in competitors: Bitbucket (owned by Atlassian), GitLab (a commercial open source product that also runs a hosted service version) and SourceForge (owned by BIZX, LLC) reported that they had seen spikes in new users intending to migrate projects from GitHub to their respective services.
On June 4, 2018, the same day GitHub was acquired by Microsoft, some projects previously hosted on GitHub might have been moved to GitLab.

Satya Nadella

Some saw this as a culmination of Microsoft's recent changes in business strategy under CEO Satya Nadella, which has seen a larger focus on the sale of cloud computing services as its main line of business, alongside development of and contributions to open source software (such as Linux), as opposed to the Microsoft Windows operating system.
He followed that by purchasing Xamarin and LinkedIn in 2016, then GitHub in 2018.

Markdown

.mdown
Documentation, including automatically rendered README files in a variety of Markdown-like file formats (see README files on GitHub)
Sites like GitHub, Bitbucket, Reddit, Diaspora, Stack Exchange, OpenStreetMap, and SourceForge use variants of Markdown to facilitate discussion between users.