A report on Glacier and Ice sheet

The glacier of the Geikie Plateau in Greenland.
A satellite composite image of Antarctica
With 7,253 known glaciers, Pakistan contains more glacial ice than any other country on earth outside the polar regions. At 62 km in length, its Baltoro Glacier is one of the world's longest alpine glaciers.
Aerial view of the ice sheet on Greenland's east coast
Aerial view of a glacier in Chugach State Park, Alaska, United States
Map of Greenland
Webber Glacier on Grant Land (northern Ellesmere Island) is an advancing polar glacier and frozen to the glacier bed. Debris rich layers of the ground moraine are sheared and folded into the ice. The steep icefront shows waterfalls. The glacier front is 6 km broad and up to 40 m high (July 20, 1978)
Carbon stores and fluxes in present-day ice sheets (2019), and the predicted impact on carbon dioxide (where data exists).
Estimated carbon fluxes are measured in Tg C a−1 (megatonnes of carbon per year) and estimated sizes of carbon stores are measured in Pg C (thousands of megatonnes of carbon). DOC = dissolved organic carbon, POC = particulate organic carbon.
Shear or herring-bone crevasses on Emmons Glacier (Mount Rainier); such crevasses often form near the edge of a glacier where interactions with underlying or marginal rock impede flow. In this case, the impediment appears to be some distance from the near margin of the glacier.
Forbes bands on the Mer de Glace glacier in France
Black ice glacier near Aconcagua, Argentina
Fox Glacier in New Zealand finishes near a rainforest.
Diagram of glacial plucking and abrasion
Glacially plucked granitic bedrock near Mariehamn, Åland
Glacial moraines above Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada
A drumlin field forms after a glacier has modified the landscape. The teardrop-shaped formations denote the direction of the ice flow.
Features of a glacial landscape
Landscape produced by a receding glacier
South Cascade Glacier in Washington documented from 1928 to 2003 showing the recent rapid glacier retreating. By looking at this photo it's clear to see how quickly the glaciers are retreating in the modern world. This kind of retreating is the result of climate change which has significantly increased due to human impacts. This photo was taken from USGS U.S. Department of Interior research looking at the last 50 years of glacier change.
Isostatic pressure by a glacier on the Earth's crust
Northern polar ice cap on Mars.
Ice calving from the terminus of the Perito Moreno Glacier in western Patagonia, Argentina.
The Aletsch Glacier, the largest glacier of the Alps, in Switzerland.
The Quelccaya Ice Cap is the second-largest glaciated area in the tropics, in Peru.
Mouth of the Schlatenkees Glacier near Innergschlöß, Austria.
The Grotta del Gelo is a cave of Etna volcano, the southernmost glacier in Europe.
Sightseeing boat in front of a tidewater glacier, Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska.
Gorner Glacier in Switzerland.
An aerial photograph of the Gorner Glacier (left side of image) together with the Grenzgletscher (r.) flowing into it, both framing the Monte Rosa massif in the middle
A packrafter passes a wall of freshly exposed blue ice on Spencer Glacier, in Alaska. Glacial ice acts like a filter on light, and the more time light spends traveling through the ice, the bluer it becomes.
A glacier cave located on the Perito Moreno Glacier in Argentina.
Ice cracks in the Titlis Glacier.
Crossing a crevasse on the Easton Glacier, Mount Baker, in the North Cascades, United States.
An exposed glacier tube that once transported water down the interior of the glacier.
Romer Lake's Elephant Foot Glacier in the Earth's Arctic, as seen by Landsat 8. This picture shows several glaciers that have the same shape as many features on Mars that are believed to also be glaciers.  The next three images from Mars show shapes similar to the Elephant Foot Glacier.
Mesa in Ismenius Lacus quadrangle, as seen by CTX. Mesa has several glaciers eroding it. One of the glaciers is seen in greater detail in the next two images from HiRISE. Image from Ismenius Lacus quadrangle.
Glacier as seen by HiRISE under the HiWish program. Area in the rectangle is enlarged in the next photo. Zone of accumulation of snow at the top. Glacier is moving down valley, then spreading out on plain. Evidence for flow comes from the many lines on surface. Location is in Protonilus Mensae in Ismenius Lacus quadrangle.
Enlargement of area in rectangle of the previous image. On Earth, the ridge would be called the terminal moraine of an alpine glacier. Picture taken with HiRISE under the HiWish program. Image from Ismenius Lacus quadrangle.

In glaciology, an ice sheet, also known as a continental glacier, is a mass of glacial ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50000 km2.

- Ice sheet

On Earth, 99% of glacial ice is contained within vast ice sheets (also known as "continental glaciers") in the polar regions, but glaciers may be found in mountain ranges on every continent other than the Australian mainland, including Oceania's high-latitude oceanic island countries such as New Zealand.

- Glacier
The glacier of the Geikie Plateau in Greenland.

4 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Lateral moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Swiss Alps. The moraine is the high bank of debris in the top left hand quarter of the image.

Glaciology

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Lateral moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Swiss Alps. The moraine is the high bank of debris in the top left hand quarter of the image.
Glaciologist Erin Pettit in Antarctica, 2016
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A kettle pond in Hossa, Suomussalmi municipality, Finland
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Glaciology is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.

A glacier is an extended mass of ice formed from snow falling and accumulating over a long period of time; glaciers move very slowly, either descending from high mountains, as in valley glaciers, or moving outward from centers of accumulation, as in continental glaciers.

Ice shelf extending approximately 6 miles into the Antarctic Sound from Joinville Island

Ice shelf

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Ice shelf extending approximately 6 miles into the Antarctic Sound from Joinville Island
Close-up of Ross Ice Shelf
Panorama of Ross Ice Shelf
An image of Antarctica differentiating its landmass (dark grey) from its ice shelves (minimum extent, light grey, and maximum extent, white)
grounding zone
Glacier-ice shelf interactions

An ice shelf is a large floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier or ice sheet flows down to a coastline and onto the ocean surface.

Velocity map of Antarctica. Ice streams can be seen with increasing speeds (blue-yellow-white) flowing toward the coast.

Ice stream

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Velocity map of Antarctica. Ice streams can be seen with increasing speeds (blue-yellow-white) flowing toward the coast.
Radarsat image of ice streams flowing into the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf.

An ice stream is a region of fast-moving ice within an ice sheet.

It is a type of glacier, a body of ice that moves under its own weight.

Satellite observations of sea level rise from 1993 to 2021.

Sea level rise

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Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century.

Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century.

Satellite observations of sea level rise from 1993 to 2021.
Historical sea level reconstruction and projections up to 2100 published in 2017 by the U.S. Global Change Research Program for the Fourth National Climate Assessment. RCP2.6 is the scenario where emissions peak before 2020, RCP4.5 the one where they peak around 2040, and RCP8.5 the one where they keep increasing.
Different sea level rise projections for the 21st century
Map of the Earth with a long-term 6 m sea level rise represented in red (uniform distribution, actual sea level rise will vary regionally and local adaptation measures will also have an effect on local sea levels).
Earth lost 28 trillion tonnes of ice between 1994 and 2017, with melting grounded ice (ice sheets and glaciers) raising the global sea level by 34.6 ±3.1 mm. The rate of ice loss has risen by 57% since the 1990s−from 0.8 to 1.2 trillion tonnes per year.
Ocean heat content (OHC) between 1957 and 2017, NOAA
The Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica's largest, is about the size of France and up to several hundred metres thick.
grounding zone
Greenland 2007 melt, measured as the difference between the number of days on which melting occurred in 2007 compared to the average annual melting days from 1988 to 2006
Trends in land water storage from GRACE observations in gigatons per year, April 2002 to November 2014 (glaciers and ice sheets are excluded).
A stripe graphic assigns ranges of annual sea level measurements to respective colors, with the baseline white color starting in 1880 and darker blues denoting progressively greater sea level rise.
Jason-1 continued the sea surface measurements started by TOPEX/Poseidon. It was followed by the Ocean Surface Topography Mission on Jason-2, and by Jason-3
Between 1993 and 2018, the mean sea level has risen across most of the world ocean (blue colors).
Tidal flooding in Miami during a king tide (October 17, 2016). The risk of tidal flooding increases with sea level rise.
Major cities threatened by sea level rise. The cities indicated are under threat of even a small sea level rise (of 1.6 foot/49 cm) compared to the level in 2010. Even moderate projections indicate that such a rise will have occurred by 2060.
Bramble Cay melomys Melomys rubicola. In 2016 declared extinct on Bramble Cay, where it had been endemic, and likely also globally extinct, with habitat loss due to sea level rise being the root cause.
Placard "The sea is rising", at the People's Climate March (2017).
Beach nourishment in progress in Barcelona.
Changes in sea level since the end of the last glacial episode

This acceleration is due mostly to climate change, which heats (and therefore expands) the ocean and which melts the land-based ice sheets and glaciers.