A page from the Zograf Codex with text of the Gospel of Luke
Example of the Cyrillic alphabet: excerpt from the manuscript "Bdinski Zbornik" written in Old Slavonic, 1360
The Baška tablet, found in the 19th century on Krk, conventionally dated to about 1100.
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The first page of the Gospel of Mark from the 10th–11th century Codex Zographensis, found in the Zograf Monastery in 1843.
A page from the Gospel of Miroslav, Serbian medieval manuscript, a 12th-century Byzantine-Slavonic book, National Library of Serbia.
The first page of the Gospel of John from the Codex Zographensis.
The Introduction of the Slavonic Liturgy in Great Moravia (1912), by Alphonse Mucha, The Slav Epic
In a book printed in 1591, Angelo Rocca attributed the Glagolitic script to Saint Jerome.
"Simeon I of Bulgaria, the Morning Star of Slavonic Literature". (1923), by Alphonse Mucha, The Slav Epic
Glagolitic script in the Zagreb Cathedral
The last Glagolitic entry in the baptismal register of the Omišalj parish on the island of Krk by the parishioner Nicholas in 1817.
The Lord's Prayer shown in (from left) round, angular, and cursive versions of Glagolitic script.

The brothers decided to translate liturgical books into the contemporary Slavic language understandable to the general population (now known as Old Church Slavonic).

- Glagolitic script

Byzantine missionaries standardized the language for the expedition of the two apostles, Cyril and his brother Methodius, to Great Moravia (the territory of today's western Slovakia and the Czech Republic; see Glagolitic alphabet for details).

- Old Church Slavonic

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Macedonia (region)

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Geographical and historical region of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.

Geographical and historical region of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.

The kingdom of Macedon with its provinces
Borders of Macedonia, based on the Roman province, according to different authors (1843–1927)
The maximum range of modern geographical region of Macedonia shown in blue (not generally accepted). The region is divided by the national boundaries of Greece (Greek Macedonia), the Republic of North Macedonia, Bulgaria (Blagoevgrad Province), Albania (Mala Prespa and Golo Brdo), Serbia (Prohor Pčinjski), and Kosovo (Gora).
Distribution of ethnic groups in Macedonia in 1892 (Deutsche Rundschau für Geographie und Statistik – German Bevieiofor Geography and Statistics)
Distribution of ethnic groups in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor in 1910 (Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, New York)
Distribution of ethnic groups in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor in 1918 (National Geographic)
Saint Gregory Palamas Cathedral in Thessaloniki
Monasteries of the Mount Athos in Macedonia (Greece)
Expansion of Macedon into a kingdom
Early Roman Macedonia (illustrated here encompassing Paeonia & south Illyria) and environs, from Droysens Historical Atlas, 1886
The late Roman Diocese of Macedonia, including the provinces of Macedonia Prima, Macedonia Secunda or Salutaris (periodically abolished), Thessalia, Epirus vetus, Epirus nova, Achaea, and Crete.
Contemporary Ottoman map or the Salonica Vilayet
Map of Part of Macedonia (Carte d'une partie de la Macedoine) by Piere Lapie (1826).
Evolution of the territory of Greece. The 'Macedonia' shown is the Greek province.
Map of the region contested by Serbia and Bulgaria and subject to the arbitration of the Russian Tsar
Ethnic composition of the Balkans according to Atlas Général Vidal-Lablanche, Paris 1890–1894. Henry Robert Wilkinson stated that this ethnic map, as most ethnic maps of that time, contained a pro-Bulgarian ethnographic view of Macedonia.
Boundaries on the Balkans after the First and the Second Balkan War (1912–1913)
Macedonia's division in 1913

In the early 860s Saints Cyril and Methodius, two Byzantine Greek brothers from Thessaloniki, created the first Slavic Glagolitic alphabet in which the Old Church Slavonic language was first transcribed, and are thus commonly referred to as the apostles of the Slavic world.

The Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century

Bulgarian language

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South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe, primarily in Bulgaria.

South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe, primarily in Bulgaria.

The Codex Zographensis is one of the oldest manuscripts in the Old Bulgarian language, dated from the late 10th or early 11th century
Cyrillic
Map of the Bulgarian dialects within Bulgaria
Extent of Bulgarian dialects according to the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences shown encompassing the Eastern South Slavic dialects. Subregions are differentiated by pronunciation of man and tooth.
Areas of Eastern South Slavic languages.
Bulgarian cursive alphabet

Old Bulgarian (9th to 11th centuries, also referred to as "Old Church Slavonic") – a literary norm of the early southern dialect of the Proto-Slavic language from which Bulgarian evolved. Saints Cyril and Methodius and their disciples used this norm when translating the Bible and other liturgical literature from Greek into Slavic.

In 886 AD, the Bulgarian Empire introduced the Glagolitic alphabet which was devised by the Saints Cyril and Methodius in the 850s.

Classification of Czech within the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family. Czech and Slovak make up a "Czech–Slovak" subgroup.

Czech language

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West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group, written in Latin script.

West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group, written in Latin script.

Classification of Czech within the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family. Czech and Slovak make up a "Czech–Slovak" subgroup.
The Bible of Kralice was the first complete translation of the Bible into the Czech language from the original languages. Its six volumes were first published between 1579 and 1593.
Josef Dobrovský, whose writing played a key role in reviving Czech as a written language.
Official use of Czech in Vojvodina, Serbia (in light blue)
Praha, Texas
A Czech vowel chart
A Czech-language sign at the entrance to a children's playground
A street named after Božena Němcová with her name declined in the genitive case (a sign probably from the time of the Protectorate).
The handwritten Czech alphabet
Josef Jungmann, whose Czech-German dictionary laid the foundations for modern Standard Czech.
Dialects of Czech, Moravian, Lach, and Cieszyn Silesian spoken in the Czech Republic. The border areas, where German was formerly spoken, are now mixed.
A headstone in Český Krumlov from 1591. The inscription features the distinctive Bohemian diphthong, spelled.
Traditional territory of the main dialect groups of Moravia and Czech Silesia. Green: Central Moravian, Red: East Moravian, Yellow: Lach (Silesian), Pink: Cieszyn Silesian, Orange: Bohemian–Moravian transitional dialects, Purple: Mixed areas

The function of the written language was initially performed by Old Slavonic written in Glagolitic, later by Latin written in Latin script.

Kiev Missal

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Folio 7r.
The third folio of Kiev Missal

The Kiev Missal (or Kiev Fragments or Kiev Folios; scholarly abbreviation Ki) is a seven-folio Glagolitic Old Church Slavonic canon manuscript containing parts of the Roman-rite liturgy.

A page from the oldest (1348) copy

Chernorizets Hrabar

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Bulgarian monk, scholar and writer who worked at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century.

Bulgarian monk, scholar and writer who worked at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century.

A page from the oldest (1348) copy

Chernorizets Hrabar is (as far as is known) the author of only one literary work, "On the Letters" (О писмєньхъ, O pismenĭhŭ, За буквите), one of the most admired and popular works of literature written in Old Church Slavonic.

The work was supposedly written sometime after the Preslav Ecclesiastical People's Council in 893, but before 921, and is the only known medieval literary work to quote the exact year of the invention of the Glagolitic alphabet (855).