Glass

silicate glassvitreousglassmakerglassyGlass manufacturingglass-makingoptical glassglass sheetglass makingglasses
Glass is a non-crystalline, amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.wikipedia
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Soda–lime glass

soda-lime glasssoda lime glassglass
Of the many silica-based glasses that exist, ordinary glazing and container glass is formed from a specific type called soda-lime glass, composed of approximately 75% silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), sodium oxide (Na 2 O) from sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ), calcium oxide (CaO), also called lime, and several minor additives.
Soda–lime glass, also called soda–lime–silica glass, is the most prevalent type of glass, used for windowpanes and glass containers (bottles and jars) for beverages, food, and some commodity items.

Stained glass

stained glass windowstained-glassstained glass windows
These qualities have led to the extensive use of glass in the manufacture of art objects and in particular, stained glass windows.
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it. Throughout its thousand-year history, the term has been applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches and other significant religious buildings.

Vitreous enamel

enamelenameledenamels
Glass can be coloured by adding metallic salts, and can also be painted and printed with vitreous enamels.
Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between 750 and 850 C. The powder melts, flows, and then hardens to a smooth, durable vitreous coating.

Lens (optics)

lenslensesconvex lens
Glass will transmit, reflect and refract light; these qualities can be enhanced by cutting and polishing to make optical lenses, prisms, fine glassware, and optical fibers for high speed data transmission by light.
Lenses are made from materials such as glass or plastic, and are ground and polished or molded to a desired shape.

Marble (toy)

marblesmarbleBīdama
In its most solid forms it has also been used for paperweights, marbles, and beads.
A marble is a small spherical toy often made from glass, clay, steel, plastic or agate.

Bottle

bottlesbottlingCodd-neck bottle
Because glass can be formed or moulded into any shape, it has been traditionally used for vessels: bowls, vases, bottles, jars and drinking glasses.
A bottle is a narrow-necked container made of an impermeable material (clay, glass, plastic, aluminium, etc.) in various shapes and sizes to store and transport liquids (water, milk, beer, wine, ink, cooking oil, medicine, soft drinks, shampoo, and chemicals, etc.) and whose mouth at the bottling line can be sealed with an internal stopper, an external bottle cap, a closure, or a conductive "inner seal" using induction sealing.

Prism

prismsprismaticoptical prism
Glass will transmit, reflect and refract light; these qualities can be enhanced by cutting and polishing to make optical lenses, prisms, fine glassware, and optical fibers for high speed data transmission by light.
Typical materials include glass, plastic, and fluorite.

Glass transition

glass transition temperaturevitrifiedvitrification
Scientifically, the term "glass" is often defined in a broader sense, encompassing every solid that possesses a non-crystalline (that is, amorphous) structure at the atomic scale and that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid state.
An amorphous solid that exhibits a glass transition is called a glass.

Poly(methyl methacrylate)

acrylic glassacrylicplexiglas
For many applications, like glass bottles or eyewear, polymer glasses (acrylic glass, polycarbonate or polyethylene terephthalate) are a lighter alternative than traditional glass.
Although not a type of familiar silica-based glass, the substance, like many thermoplastics, is often technically classified as a type of glass (in that it is a non-crystalline vitreous substance) hence its occasional historical designation as acrylic glass.

Tableware

crockerydishwaredinnerware
Glass is a non-crystalline, amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
However, they can be made of other materials such as wood, pewter, silver, gold, glass, acrylic and plastic.

Bead

beadsSeed beads
In its most solid forms it has also been used for paperweights, marbles, and beads.
In modern manufacturing, the most common bead materials are wood, plastic, glass, metal, and stone.

Fused quartz

fused silicasilica glassquartz glass
Fused quartz is a glass made from chemically-pure silica.
Fused quartz or fused silica is glass consisting of silica in amorphous (non-crystalline) form.

Polymer

polymershomopolymerpolymeric
These sorts of glasses can be made of quite different kinds of materials than silica: metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, and polymers.
Their consequently large molecular mass relative to small molecule compounds produces unique physical properties, including toughness, viscoelasticity, and a tendency to form glasses and semicrystalline structures rather than crystals.

Vitrification

vitrifiedvitreousvitrifies
In nature, vitrification of quartz occurs when lightning strikes sand, forming hollow, branching rootlike structures called fulgurites.
Vitrification (from Latin vitreum, "glass" via French vitrifier) is the transformation of a substance into a glass, that is to say a non-crystalline amorphous solid.

Lead glass

crystalcrystal glassleaded glass
Lead glass or flint glass is more "brilliant" because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more specular reflection and increased optical dispersion.
Lead glass, commonly called crystal, is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of a typical potash glass.

Fulgurite

fulguritesfulgaritesand struck by lightning
In nature, vitrification of quartz occurs when lightning strikes sand, forming hollow, branching rootlike structures called fulgurites.
They are commonly hollow and/or branching assemblages of glassy, protocrystalline, and heterogeneously microcrystalline tubes, crusts, slags, vesicular masses, and clusters of refractory materials that often form during the discharge phase of lightning strikes propagating into silica-rich quartzose sand, mixed soil, clay, or other sediments.

Flint glass

flintflint as a silica sourceFlint glass (pure)
Lead glass or flint glass is more "brilliant" because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more specular reflection and increased optical dispersion.
Flint glass is optical glass that has relatively high refractive index and low Abbe number (high dispersion).

Glass bottle

glass bottlesglassBeverage bottles (glass)
For many applications, like glass bottles or eyewear, polymer glasses (acrylic glass, polycarbonate or polyethylene terephthalate) are a lighter alternative than traditional glass.
A glass bottle is a bottle created from glass.

Reflection (physics)

reflectionreflectedreflective
Glass will transmit, reflect and refract light; these qualities can be enhanced by cutting and polishing to make optical lenses, prisms, fine glassware, and optical fibers for high speed data transmission by light.
Reflection also occurs at the surface of transparent media, such as water or glass.

Sodium oxide

Na 2 Osodaoxide
Of the many silica-based glasses that exist, ordinary glazing and container glass is formed from a specific type called soda-lime glass, composed of approximately 75% silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), sodium oxide (Na 2 O) from sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ), calcium oxide (CaO), also called lime, and several minor additives.
It is used in ceramics and glasses, though not in a raw form.

Borosilicate glass

borosilicatealumino-borosilicate glassBK7 glass
Sodium borosilicate glass, Pyrex: silica + boron trioxide (B 2 O 3 ) + soda (Na 2 O) + alumina (Al 2 O 3 ). Stands heat expansion much better than window glass. Used for chemical glassware, cooking glass, car head lamps, etc. Borosilicate glasses (e.g. Pyrex, Duran) have as main constituents silica and boron trioxide. They have fairly low coefficients of thermal expansion (7740 Pyrex CTE is 3.25/°C as compared to about 9/°C for a typical soda-lime glass ), making them more dimensionally stable. The lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) also makes them less subject to stress caused by thermal expansion, thus less vulnerable to cracking from thermal shock. They are commonly used for reagent bottles, optical components and household cookware.
Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents.

Crystallinity

crystallineholocrystallinesemicrystalline
Glass is a non-crystalline, amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Amorphous materials, such as liquids and glasses, represent an intermediate case, having order over short distances (a few atomic or molecular spacings) but not over longer distances.

Container glass

glass containerglass containers
Soda-lime-silica glass, window glass: silica + sodium oxide (Na 2 O) + lime (CaO) + magnesia (MgO) + alumina (Al 2 O 3 ). Is transparent, easily formed and most suitable for window glass (see flat glass). It has a high thermal expansion and poor resistance to heat (500–600 °C). It is used for windows, some low-temperature incandescent light bulbs, and tableware. Container glass is a soda-lime glass that is a slight variation on flat glass, which uses more alumina and calcium, and less sodium and magnesium, which are more water-soluble. This makes it less susceptible to water erosion.
Container glass is a type of glass for the production of glass containers, such as bottles, jars, drinkware, and bowls.

Plate glass

flat glassplate-glasssheet glass
Soda-lime-silica glass, window glass: silica + sodium oxide (Na 2 O) + lime (CaO) + magnesia (MgO) + alumina (Al 2 O 3 ). Is transparent, easily formed and most suitable for window glass (see flat glass). It has a high thermal expansion and poor resistance to heat (500–600 °C). It is used for windows, some low-temperature incandescent light bulbs, and tableware. Container glass is a soda-lime glass that is a slight variation on flat glass, which uses more alumina and calcium, and less sodium and magnesium, which are more water-soluble. This makes it less susceptible to water erosion.
Plate glass, flat glass or sheet glass is a type of glass, initially produced in plane form, commonly used for windows, glass doors, transparent walls, and windscreens.

Silicon dioxide

silicasiliceousSiO 2
Of the many silica-based glasses that exist, ordinary glazing and container glass is formed from a specific type called soda-lime glass, composed of approximately 75% silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), sodium oxide (Na 2 O) from sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ), calcium oxide (CaO), also called lime, and several minor additives. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of manufactured glass are "silicate glasses" based on the chemical compound silica (silicon dioxide, or quartz), the primary constituent of sand.
Silica is the primary ingredient in the production of most glass.