Glass

glassmakersilicate glassvitreousglassyoptical glassGlass manufacturingglass-makingglassesglass sheetglass making
Glass is a non-crystalline, often transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative uses in, for example, window panes, tableware, optics, and optoelectronics.wikipedia
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Soda–lime glass

soda-lime glasssoda lime glasssoda glass
Of the many silica-based glasses that exist, ordinary glazing and container glass is formed from a specific type called soda-lime glass, composed of approximately 75% silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), sodium oxide (Na 2 O) from sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ), calcium oxide (CaO), also called lime, and several minor additives.
Soda–lime glass, also called soda–lime–silica glass, is the most prevalent type of glass, used for windowpanes and glass containers (bottles and jars) for beverages, food, and some commodity items.

Stained glass

stained-glassstained glass windowstained glass windows
These qualities have led to the extensive use of glass in the manufacture of art objects and in particular, stained glass windows.
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.

Vitreous enamel

enamelenameledenamels
Glass can be coloured by adding metal salts, and can also be painted and printed with vitreous enamels.
Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between 750 and 850 C. The powder melts, flows, and then hardens to a smooth, durable vitreous coating.

Lens

lensesconvex lensoptical lens
Glass will transmit, reflect and refract light; these qualities can be enhanced by cutting and polishing to make optical lenses, prisms, fine glassware, and optical fibers for high speed data transmission by light.
Lenses are made from materials such as glass or plastic, and are ground and polished or molded to a desired shape.

Marble (toy)

marblesmarbleAggie (marble)
In its most solid forms it has also been used for paperweights, marbles, and beads.
A marble is a small spherical toy often made from glass, clay, steel, plastic or agate.

Bottle

bottlesbottlingBottled
Because glass can be formed or moulded into any shape, it has been traditionally used for vessels: bowls, vases, bottles, jars and drinking glasses.
A bottle is a narrow-necked container made of an impermeable material (clay, glass, plastic, aluminium etc.) in various shapes and sizes to store and transport liquids (water, milk, beer, wine, ink, cooking oil, medicine, soft drinks, shampoo, and chemicals, etc.) and whose mouth at the bottling line can be sealed with an internal stopper, an external bottle cap, a closure, or a conductive "inner seal" using induction sealing.

Tableware

crockerydishwaredinnerware
Glass is a non-crystalline, often transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative uses in, for example, window panes, tableware, optics, and optoelectronics.
Table ware can be made of other materials such as wood, pewter, latten, silver, gold, glass, acrylic and plastic.

Prism

prismsprismaticPrism (optics)
Glass will transmit, reflect and refract light; these qualities can be enhanced by cutting and polishing to make optical lenses, prisms, fine glassware, and optical fibers for high speed data transmission by light.
Typical materials include glass, plastic, and fluorite.

Glass transition

glass transition temperaturevitrifiedvitrification
Scientifically, "glass" is often defined in a broader sense, encompassing every solid that possesses a non-crystalline (that is, amorphous) structure at the atomic scale and that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid state.
An amorphous solid that exhibits a glass transition is called a glass.

Plastic

plasticsadditivesadditive
When extruded as glass fiber and matted as glass wool so as to trap air, it becomes a thermal insulating material, and when glass fibers are embedded into an organic polymer plastic, they are a key structural reinforcement part of the composite material fiberglass.
They have prevailed over traditional materials, such as wood, stone, horn and bone, leather, metal, glass, and ceramic, in some products previously left to natural materials.

Poly(methyl methacrylate)

Plexiglasacrylicacrylic glass
For many applications, like glass bottles or eyewear, polymer glasses (acrylic glass, polycarbonate or polyethylene terephthalate) are a lighter alternative to traditional glass.
Although not a type of familiar silica-based glass, the substance, like many thermoplastics, is often technically classified as a type of glass (in that it is a non-crystalline vitreous substance) hence its occasional historical designation as acrylic glass.

Bead

beadsperler beadsSeed beads
In its most solid forms it has also been used for paperweights, marbles, and beads.
In modern manufacturing, the most common bead materials are wood, plastic, glass, metal, and stone.

Fused quartz

fused silicasilica glassquartz glass
Fused quartz is a glass made from chemically-pure silica.
Fused quartz or fused silica is glass consisting of silica in amorphous (non-crystalline) form.

Polymer

polymershomopolymerpolymeric
These sorts of glasses can be made of quite different kinds of materials than silica: metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, and polymers.
Their consequently large molecular mass, relative to small molecule compounds, produces unique physical properties including toughness, viscoelasticity, and a tendency to form glasses and semicrystalline structures rather than crystals.

Vitrification

vitrifiedvitreousvitrifies
In nature, vitrification of quartz occurs when lightning strikes sand, forming hollow, branching rootlike structures called fulgurites.
Vitrification (from Latin vitreum, "glass" via French vitrifier) is the transformation of a substance into a glass, that is to say, a non-crystalline amorphous solid.

Lead glass

crystalcrystal glassleaded glass
Lead glass or flint glass is more "brilliant" because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more specular reflection and increased optical dispersion.
Lead glass, commonly called crystal, is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of a typical potash glass.

Glass bottle

glass bottlesglassBeverage bottles (glass)
For many applications, like glass bottles or eyewear, polymer glasses (acrylic glass, polycarbonate or polyethylene terephthalate) are a lighter alternative to traditional glass.
A glass bottle is a bottle created from glass.

Flint glass

flintflint as a silica sourceflint elements
Lead glass or flint glass is more "brilliant" because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more specular reflection and increased optical dispersion.
Flint glass is optical glass that has relatively high refractive index and low Abbe number (high dispersion).

Reflection (physics)

reflectionreflectedreflective
Glass will transmit, reflect and refract light; these qualities can be enhanced by cutting and polishing to make optical lenses, prisms, fine glassware, and optical fibers for high speed data transmission by light.
Reflection also occurs at the surface of transparent media, such as water or glass.

Sodium oxide

Na 2 Osodaoxide
Of the many silica-based glasses that exist, ordinary glazing and container glass is formed from a specific type called soda-lime glass, composed of approximately 75% silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), sodium oxide (Na 2 O) from sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ), calcium oxide (CaO), also called lime, and several minor additives.
It is used in ceramics and glasses, though not in a raw form.

Borosilicate glass

borosilicateFiolaxalumino-borosilicate glass
Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents.

Container glass

glass containerContainer glass manufacturingglass containers
Container glass for common bottles and jars is formed by blowing and pressing methods.
Container glass is a type of glass for the production of glass containers, such as bottles, jars, drinkware, and bowls.

Fulgurite

altered rocksfulgaritefulgurites
In nature, vitrification of quartz occurs when lightning strikes sand, forming hollow, branching rootlike structures called fulgurites.
This results in the formation of hollow, branching assemblages of glassy, tubes, crusts, and vesicular masses.

Plate glass

flat glassplate-glasssheet glass
Flat glass for windows and similar applications is formed by the float glass process, developed between 1953 and 1957 by Sir Alastair Pilkington and Kenneth Bickerstaff of the UK's Pilkington Brothers, who created a continuous ribbon of glass using a molten tin bath on which the molten glass flows unhindered under the influence of gravity.
Plate glass, flat glass or sheet glass is a type of glass, initially produced in plane form, commonly used for windows, glass doors, transparent walls, and windscreens.

Silicon dioxide

silicasiliceousSiO 2
Of the many silica-based glasses that exist, ordinary glazing and container glass is formed from a specific type called soda-lime glass, composed of approximately 75% silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), sodium oxide (Na 2 O) from sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ), calcium oxide (CaO), also called lime, and several minor additives. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of manufactured glass are "silicate glasses" based on the chemical compound silica (silicon dioxide, or quartz), the primary constituent of sand.
Silica is the primary ingredient in the production of most glass.