Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present)

2013 mass surveillance disclosuresglobal surveillance disclosures2013 global surveillance disclosuresSnowden leaksglobal surveillance disclosuredisclosuresGlobal surveillance disclosures of 2013NSA leaksglobal surveillancesurveillance disclosures
Ongoing news reports in the international media have revealed operational details about the United States National Security Agency (NSA) and its international partners' global surveillance of both foreign nationals and U.S. citizens.wikipedia
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Global surveillance

government surveillanceInternational cooperationmass surveillance
Ongoing news reports in the international media have revealed operational details about the United States National Security Agency (NSA) and its international partners' global surveillance of both foreign nationals and U.S. citizens. These media reports have shed light on the implications of several secret treaties signed by members of the UKUSA community in their efforts to implement global surveillance. Other security and intelligence agencies involved in the practice of global surveillance include those in Australia (ASD), Britain (GCHQ), Canada (CSEC), Denmark (PET), France (DGSE), Germany (BND), Italy (AISE), the Netherlands (AIVD), Norway (NIS), Spain (CNI), Switzerland (NDB), Singapore (SID) as well as Israel (ISNU), which receives raw, unfiltered data of U.S. citizens that is shared by the NSA.
Its existence, however, was not widely acknowledged by governments and the mainstream media until the global surveillance disclosures by Edward Snowden triggered a debate about the right to privacy in the Digital Age.

Edward Snowden

SnowdenEd SnowdenSnowden Files
The reports mostly emanate from a cache of top secret documents leaked by ex-NSA contractor Edward Snowden, which he obtained whilst working for Booz Allen Hamilton, one of the largest contractors for defense and intelligence in the United States.
His disclosures revealed numerous global surveillance programs, many run by the NSA and the Five Eyes Intelligence Alliance with the cooperation of telecommunication companies and European governments, and prompted a cultural discussion about national security and individual privacy.

Barton Gellman

Gellman, BartonBart GellmanBarton D. Gellman
Barton Gellman, a Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist who led The Washington Posts coverage of Snowden's disclosures, summarized the leaks as follows:
Barton David Gellman (born 1960) is an American journalist and bestselling author known for his reports on the September 11 attacks, on Dick Cheney's vice presidency and on the global surveillance disclosure.

UKUSA Agreement

UKUSAUKUSA CommunityUK-USA Security Agreement
These media reports have shed light on the implications of several secret treaties signed by members of the UKUSA community in their efforts to implement global surveillance.
The global surveillance disclosure by Edward Snowden has shown that the intelligence-sharing activities between the First World allies of the Cold War are rapidly shifting into the digital realm of the Internet.

Tempora

In addition, GCHQ has been intercepting and storing mass quantities of fiber-optic traffic via Tempora.
The existence of Tempora was revealed by Edward Snowden, a former American intelligence contractor who leaked information about the program to former Guardian journalist Glenn Greenwald in May 2013 as part of his revelations of government-sponsored mass surveillance programs.

Laura Poitras

PoitrasPoitras, Laura
That year, Snowden had made his first contact with journalist Glenn Greenwald, then employed by The Guardian, and he contacted documentary filmmaker Laura Poitras in January 2013.
She won the 2013 George Polk Award for "national security reporting" related to the NSA disclosures.

PRISM (surveillance program)

PRISMPRISM surveillance programPRISM program
On June 6, 2013, the second media disclosure, the revelation of the PRISM surveillance program (which collects the e-mail, voice, text and video chats of foreigners and an unknown number of Americans from Microsoft, Google, Facebook, Yahoo, Apple and other tech giants), was published simultaneously by The Guardian and The Washington Post.
The vote is part of efforts in Europe to shield citizens from online surveillance in the wake of revelations about a far-reaching spying program by the U.S. National Security Agency.

Lustre (treaty)

Lustre
Under a secret treaty codenamed "Lustre", French intelligence agencies transferred millions of metadata records to the NSA.
Its existence was revealed during the 2013 global surveillance disclosure based on documents leaked by the former NSA contractor Edward Snowden.

Apple Inc.

AppleApple ComputerApple Inc
According to the document, the NSA has set up task forces assigned to several smartphone manufacturers and operating systems, including Apple Inc.'s iPhone and iOS operating system, as well as Google's Android mobile operating system.
Alongside Google vice-president Vint Cerf and AT&T CEO Randall Stephenson, Cook attended a closed-door summit held by President Obama on August 8, 2013, in regard to government surveillance and the Internet in the wake of the Edward Snowden NSA incident.

News leak

leakedleakleaking
The reports mostly emanate from a cache of top secret documents leaked by ex-NSA contractor Edward Snowden, which he obtained whilst working for Booz Allen Hamilton, one of the largest contractors for defense and intelligence in the United States.

Glenn Greenwald

David MirandaGreat American HypocritesGreat American Hypocrites: Toppling the Big Myths of Republican Politics
That year, Snowden had made his first contact with journalist Glenn Greenwald, then employed by The Guardian, and he contacted documentary filmmaker Laura Poitras in January 2013.
As part of the global surveillance disclosure, the first of Snowden's documents were published on June 5, 2013, in The Guardian in an article by Greenwald.

Central Intelligence Agency

CIAC.I.A.Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
The disclosure revealed specific details of the NSA's close cooperation with U.S. federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in addition to the agency's previously undisclosed financial payments to numerous commercial partners and telecommunications companies, as well as its previously undisclosed relationships with international partners such as Britain, France, Germany, and its secret treaties with foreign governments that were recently established for sharing intercepted data of each other's citizens.
According to the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures, the CIA's fiscal 2013 budget is $14.7 billion, 28% of the total and almost 50% more than the budget of the National Security Agency.

Mastering the Internet

Two principal components of Tempora are called "Mastering the Internet" (MTI) and "Global Telecoms Exploitation".
However, the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures revealed that the GCHQ gathers "raw" information (without filtering out the communications of British citizens) from the web as part of its "Mastering the Internet" programme.

Ewen MacAskill

Greenwald, Poitras and the Guardian's defence and intelligence correspondent Ewen MacAskill flew to Hong Kong to meet Snowden.
As a result of his reporting on Global surveillance disclosures, he was named co-recipient of the 2013 George Polk Award.

GCHQ

Government Communications HeadquartersGovernment Code and Cypher SchoolGovernment Code and Cypher School (GC&CS)
Other security and intelligence agencies involved in the practice of global surveillance include those in Australia (ASD), Britain (GCHQ), Canada (CSEC), Denmark (PET), France (DGSE), Germany (BND), Italy (AISE), the Netherlands (AIVD), Norway (NIS), Spain (CNI), Switzerland (NDB), Singapore (SID) as well as Israel (ISNU), which receives raw, unfiltered data of U.S. citizens that is shared by the NSA.
Snowden's revelations began a spate of ongoing disclosures of global surveillance.

Barack Obama

ObamaPresident ObamaPresident Barack Obama
On August 6, 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama made a public appearance on national television where he told Americans that "We don't have a domestic spying program" and that "There is no spying on Americans".
Following the 2013 global surveillance disclosures by whistleblower Edward Snowden, Obama condemned the leak as unpatriotic, but called for increased restrictions on the NSA to address violations of privacy.

Cyberwarfare

cyber warfarecyber-warfareCyberwar
The NSA gathered documents and login credentials belonging to the enemy country, along with knowledge of the ally's capabilities for attacking computers.

Sean Wilentz

Wilentz, SeanSean Wilentz, Princeton Professor and civil war historianWilentz, Sean.
In January 2014, Obama said that "the sensational way in which these disclosures have come out has often shed more heat than light" and critics such as Sean Wilentz have noted that many of the Snowden documents released do not concern domestic surveillance.
In January 2014, Wilentz took issue with those involved in the 2013 NSA leaks, in particular Edward Snowden, Glenn Greenwald, and Julian Assange.

National Defence Radio Establishment

Swedish National Defence Radio EstablishmentFRAlegislative change
For example, Der Spiegel revealed how the German Foreign Intelligence Service (Bundesnachrichtendienst; BND) transfers "massive amounts of intercepted data to the NSA", while Swedish Television revealed the National Defence Radio Establishment (FRA) provided the NSA with data from its cable collection, under a secret treaty signed in 1954 for bilateral cooperation on surveillance.

Government Communications Security Bureau

GCSBNew Zealand Government Communications Security BureauCentre for Critical Infrastructure Protection
Critics of the GCSB Amendment Bill claimed that the Bill would turn New Zealand into a police state like the former German Democratic Republic and made references to George Orwell's novel 1984 and the ongoing Edward Snowden NSA Leaks scandal.

MUSCULAR (surveillance program)

MUSCULAR
Under Britain's MUSCULAR programme, the NSA and GCHQ have secretly broken into the main communications links that connect Yahoo and Google data centers around the world and thereby gained the ability to collect metadata and content at will from hundreds of millions of user accounts.

Stateroom (surveillance program)

STATEROOM
A highly sensitive signals intelligence collection program known as Stateroom involves the interception of radio, telecommunications and internet traffic.
The existence of Stateroom was revealed in October 2013 by the former NSA contractor Edward Snowden, who initiated the global surveillance disclosure.

Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board report on mass surveillance

The Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board report on mass surveillance was released on January 23, 2014.
The Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board report on mass surveillance was issued in January 2014 in light of the global surveillance disclosures of 2013, recommending the US end bulk data collection.

Global Telecoms Exploitation

Two principal components of Tempora are called "Mastering the Internet" (MTI) and "Global Telecoms Exploitation".
Its existence was revealed along with its sister programme, Mastering the Internet, in June 2013 as part of the global surveillance disclosures by the former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden.

Joint Threat Research Intelligence Group

JTRIGJoint Threat Research Intelligence Group (JTRIG)
The attack, dubbed Rolling Thunder, was conducted by a GCHQ unit known as the Joint Threat Research Intelligence Group (JTRIG).
The existence of JTRIG was revealed as part of the global surveillance disclosures in documents leaked by the former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden.