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The 13th century world-system, as described by Janet Abu-Lughod
The field of international relations dates from the time of the Greek historian Thucydides.
Portuguese carrack in Nagasaki, 17th-century Japanese Nanban art
The official portraits of King Władysław IV dressed according to French, Spanish and Polish fashion reflects the complex politics of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Thirty Years' War.
The Silk Road in the 1st century
Empires of the world in 1910
Native New World crops exchanged globally: Maize, tomato, potato, vanilla, rubber, cacao, tobacco
NATO International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan
Lisbon in the 1570s had many Africans
The United Nations Secretariat Building at the United Nations headquarters in New York City
The 1843 launch of the Great Britain, the revolutionary ship of Isambard Kingdom Brunel
The World Bank headquarters in Washington, D.C.
During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the United Kingdom was a global superpower.
NATO E-3A flying with USAF F-16s in a NATO exercise
D.H. Comet, the world's first commercial jet airliner, entered service in 1949
With a population of 1.4 billion, China is the world's second-largest economy.
Singapore is the top country in the Enabling Trade Index.
U.S. Trade Balance and Trade Policy (1895–2015)
Dividends worth CZK 289 billion were paid to the foreign owners of Czech companies in 2016.
Shakira, a Colombian multilingual singer-songwriter, playing outside her home country
McDonald's is commonly seen as a symbol of Globalization, often called McDonaldization of global society
Use of chili pepper has spread from the Americas to cuisines around the world, including Thailand, Korea, China, and Italy.
The United Nations Headquarters in New York City
U.S. military presence around the world in 2007., the U.S. still had many bases and troops stationed globally.
From the documentary Ukraine Is Not a Brothel. Radical group Femen protest against the increase in sex tourism into Ukraine.
Scheduled airline traffic in 2009
2010 London Youth Games opening ceremony. About 69% of children born in London in 2015 had at least one parent who was born abroad.
The global digital divide: Computers per 100 people
The European Union–Mercosur free trade agreement, which would form one of the world's largest free trade areas, has been denounced by environmental activists and indigenous rights campaigners.
Hu Jintao of China and George W. Bush meet while attending an APEC summit in Santiago de Chile, 2004
As of 2017, there were 2,754 U.S. dollar billionaires worldwide, with a combined wealth of over US$9.2trillion.
Of the factors influencing the duration of economic growth in both developed and developing countries, income equality has a more beneficial impact than trade openness, sound political institutions, and foreign investment.
Worlds regions by total wealth (in trillions USD), 2018
Barack Obama and Dmitry Medvedev after signing the New START treaty in Prague, 2010
Anti-TTIP demonstration in Hannover, Germany, 2016
World Bank Protester, Jakarta, Indonesia
Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient, as of 2018.
Countries by total wealth (trillions USD), Credit Suisse
Global share of wealth by wealth group, Credit Suisse, 2017
Immigrant rights march for amnesty, Los Angeles, on May Day, 2006
Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers.
a shows carbon footprint (CF) hotspots of foreign final consumption in China. b–d show carbon footprint hotspots of the consumption of the United States, Hong Kong, and Japan, respectively. Among all foreign regions, the United States, Hong Kong, and Japan have the largest CFs in China, contributing ~23.0%, 10.8%, and 9.0%, respectively, to the total foreign CF in China in 2012.

The collapse of the Soviet Union and subsequent rise of globalization in the late 20th century presaged new theories and evaluations of the rapidly changing international system.

- International relations

They note the term was used "in education to describe the global life of the mind"; in international relations to describe the extension of the European Common Market, and in journalism to describe how the "American Negro and his problem are taking on a global significance".

- Globalization
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Illustration of the impossible trinity in IPE finance scholarship; inspired by the Mundell-Fleming model in international economics. The theory postulates that a state may not have any more than two of the following policies in place at the same time; a fixed exchange rate, free capital movement, and an independent national monetary policy.

International political economy

Illustration of the impossible trinity in IPE finance scholarship; inspired by the Mundell-Fleming model in international economics. The theory postulates that a state may not have any more than two of the following policies in place at the same time; a fixed exchange rate, free capital movement, and an independent national monetary policy.

International political economy (IPE) or Global political economy (GPE) is a major subdiscipline of international relations studying the interactions between the economy on a global level and political and economic actors, systems and institutions.

More precisely, IPE focuses on global economic governance, through studies of macroeconomic phenomena such as globalization, international trade, the monetary and financial system, international inequality, and development, and how these are shaped by, amongst others, international organizations, multinational corporations, and sovereign states.