Glomerulonephritis

glomerular nephritisglomerulonephritis, membranoproliferativeglomeruluskidney diseasenephritispost infectious glomerulonephritissegmental necrotising glomerulonephritis
Glomerulonephritis (GN), also known as glomerular nephritis, is a term used to refer to several kidney diseases (usually affecting both kidneys).wikipedia
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Nephritic syndrome

chronic nephritisacute nephritic syndromenephritic
As it is not strictly a single disease, its presentation depends on the specific disease entity: it may present with isolated hematuria and/or proteinuria (blood or protein in the urine); or as a nephrotic syndrome, a nephritic syndrome, acute kidney injury, or chronic kidney disease. IgA nephropathy, also known as Berger's disease, is the most common type of glomerulonephritis, and generally presents with isolated visible or occult hematuria, occasionally combined with low grade proteinuria, and rarely causes a nephritic syndrome characterised by protein in the urine, and visible blood in the urine. Membranous glomerulonephritis may cause either nephrotic or a nephritic picture.
It often occurs in glomerulonephritis, which is characterized by a thin glomerular basement membrane and small pores in the podocytes of the glomerulus, large enough to permit proteins and red blood cells to pass into the urine (yielding proteinuria and hematuria).

Proteinuria

protein in the urineproteinProtein loss in the urine
As it is not strictly a single disease, its presentation depends on the specific disease entity: it may present with isolated hematuria and/or proteinuria (blood or protein in the urine); or as a nephrotic syndrome, a nephritic syndrome, acute kidney injury, or chronic kidney disease. The nephrotic syndrome is characterised by the finding of edema in a person with increased protein in the urine and decreased protein in the blood, with increased fat in the blood.
Glomerular diseases, such as membranous glomerulonephritis, focal segmental glomerulonephritis, minimal change disease (lipoid nephrosis)

Systemic lupus erythematosus

lupusSLEsystemic lupus
Secondary causes are associated with certain infections (bacterial, viral or parasitic pathogens), drugs, systemic disorders (SLE, vasculitis), or diabetes. Type 1 MPGN is caused by circulating immune complexes, typically secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis B and C, or other chronic or recurring infections. Circulating immune complexes may activate the complement system, leading to inflammation and an influx of inflammatory cells.
The histological hallmark of SLE is membranous glomerulonephritis with "wire loop" abnormalities.

Acute kidney injury

acute renal failureacute kidney failureuremic poisoning
As it is not strictly a single disease, its presentation depends on the specific disease entity: it may present with isolated hematuria and/or proteinuria (blood or protein in the urine); or as a nephrotic syndrome, a nephritic syndrome, acute kidney injury, or chronic kidney disease.
Common causes of each are glomerulonephritis, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), and acute interstitial nephritis (AIN), respectively.

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
Many of the diseases are characterised by inflammation either of the glomeruli or of the small blood vessels in the kidneys, hence the name, but not all diseases necessarily have an inflammatory component.
Glomerulonephritis

Alport syndrome

This form of glomerulonephritis may be associated with conditions such as HIV and heroin abuse, or inherited as Alport syndrome.
Alport syndrome is a genetic disorder affecting around 1 in 5,000-10,000 children, characterized by glomerulonephritis, end-stage kidney disease, and hearing loss.

Kidney

kidneysrenalrenal circulation
Glomerulonephritis (GN), also known as glomerular nephritis, is a term used to refer to several kidney diseases (usually affecting both kidneys).
Glomerulonephritis

IgA nephropathy

Berger diseaseglomerulonephritis, igaIgA nephropathy 3
IgA nephropathy, also known as Berger's disease, is the most common type of glomerulonephritis, and generally presents with isolated visible or occult hematuria, occasionally combined with low grade proteinuria, and rarely causes a nephritic syndrome characterised by protein in the urine, and visible blood in the urine.
IgA nephropathy (IgAN), also known as IgA nephritis, Berger's disease (and variations), or synpharyngitic glomerulonephritis, is a disease of the kidney (or nephropathy) and the immune system; specifically it is a form of glomerulonephritis or an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney.

Chronic kidney disease

chronic renal failurerenal insufficiencyend-stage renal disease
As it is not strictly a single disease, its presentation depends on the specific disease entity: it may present with isolated hematuria and/or proteinuria (blood or protein in the urine); or as a nephrotic syndrome, a nephritic syndrome, acute kidney injury, or chronic kidney disease.
Causes of chronic kidney disease include diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and polycystic kidney disease.

Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis

post-streptococcal glomerulonephritispoststreptococcal glomerulonephritispost-infectious glomerulonephritis
Post-infectious glomerulonephritis can occur after essentially any infection, but classically occurs after infection with the bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes.
Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis is a disorder of the glomeruli (glomerulonephritis), or small blood vessels in the kidneys.

Hematuria

blood in the urinehaematuriabloody urine
As it is not strictly a single disease, its presentation depends on the specific disease entity: it may present with isolated hematuria and/or proteinuria (blood or protein in the urine); or as a nephrotic syndrome, a nephritic syndrome, acute kidney injury, or chronic kidney disease. IgA nephropathy, also known as Berger's disease, is the most common type of glomerulonephritis, and generally presents with isolated visible or occult hematuria, occasionally combined with low grade proteinuria, and rarely causes a nephritic syndrome characterised by protein in the urine, and visible blood in the urine.
Glomerulonephritis – a group of inflammatory diseases of the glomeruli, leading to hematuria, hypertension, and peripheral edema

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

focal segmental glomerular sclerosisfocal and segmental glomerulosclerosisfocally
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is characterised by a sclerosis of segments of some glomerules.
Glomerulonephritis

Lupus nephritis

systemic lupus erythematosus
Lupus nephritis
It is a type of glomerulonephritis in which the glomeruli become inflamed.

Vasculitis

vasculitidesvasculiticvasculitis, central nervous system
Type 3 rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, also called pauciimmune type, is associated with causes of vascular inflammation including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis. No immune deposits can be seen on staining, however blood tests may be positive for the ANCA antibody.
Kidneys: Glomerulonephritis

Membranous glomerulonephritis

membranous nephropathymembranous nephritisglomerulonephritis, membranous
Membranous glomerulonephritis may cause either nephrotic or a nephritic picture.
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis involves the basement membrane and mesangium, while membranous glomerulonephritis involves the basement membrane but not the mesangium.

Nephritis

nephritis, hereditaryinflammation of the kidneyAcute Nephritis
Nephritis
Glomerulonephritis is inflammation of the glomeruli. Glomerulonephritis is often implied when using the term "nephritis" without qualification.

Complement system

complementcomplement cascadecomplement proteins
Type 1 MPGN is caused by circulating immune complexes, typically secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis B and C, or other chronic or recurring infections. Circulating immune complexes may activate the complement system, leading to inflammation and an influx of inflammatory cells.
It is thought that the complement system might play a role in many diseases with an immune component, such as Barraquer–Simons Syndrome, asthma, lupus erythematosus, glomerulonephritis, various forms of arthritis, autoimmune heart disease, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and ischemia-reperfusion injuries, and rejection of transplanted organs.

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

coin lesion, pulmonaryWegener's DiseaseWegener's granulomatosis
Type 3 rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, also called pauciimmune type, is associated with causes of vascular inflammation including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis. No immune deposits can be seen on staining, however blood tests may be positive for the ANCA antibody.
Intravenous "pulse" corticosteroids and plasmapheresis are also recommended if manifestations of severe GPA, such as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, glomerulonephritis (as seen in pulmonary-renal syndrome), or mesenteric ischemia, are observed.

Anti-streptolysin O

antistreptolysinASOantistreptolysin O
Diagnosis may be made on clinical findings or through antistreptolysin O antibodies found in the blood.
The ASOT helps direct antimicrobial treatment and is used to assist in the diagnosis of scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and post infectious glomerulonephritis.

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

ANCAanti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodiesantineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies
Type 3 rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, also called pauciimmune type, is associated with causes of vascular inflammation including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis. No immune deposits can be seen on staining, however blood tests may be positive for the ANCA antibody.
ANCAs were originally described in Davies et al. in 1982 in segmental necrotising glomerulonephritis, and by van der Woude et al. in 1985 in granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

Glomerulus

glomeruliglomerularglomerular filtration
Many of the diseases are characterised by inflammation either of the glomeruli or of the small blood vessels in the kidneys, hence the name, but not all diseases necessarily have an inflammatory component.

Urine

urinaryhuman urinepiss
As it is not strictly a single disease, its presentation depends on the specific disease entity: it may present with isolated hematuria and/or proteinuria (blood or protein in the urine); or as a nephrotic syndrome, a nephritic syndrome, acute kidney injury, or chronic kidney disease.

Nephrotic syndrome

a serious kidney disorderGlomerulosclerosisidiopathic nephrotic syndrome
As it is not strictly a single disease, its presentation depends on the specific disease entity: it may present with isolated hematuria and/or proteinuria (blood or protein in the urine); or as a nephrotic syndrome, a nephritic syndrome, acute kidney injury, or chronic kidney disease. Membranous glomerulonephritis may cause either nephrotic or a nephritic picture.

Edema

dropsyoedemaswelling
The nephrotic syndrome is characterised by the finding of edema in a person with increased protein in the urine and decreased protein in the blood, with increased fat in the blood.

Hypoalbuminemia

hypoalbuminaemialow blood albumin levelsAlbumin
The nephrotic syndrome is characterised by the finding of edema in a person with increased protein in the urine and decreased protein in the blood, with increased fat in the blood.