Glottal stop

ʔGlottalglottal stops -h ''' [ʔglottal closureglottal plosiveglottal-stopglottalised -h '''
The glottal stop or glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.wikipedia
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ʻOkina

okina‘okinafakauʻa
In many Polynesian languages that use the Latin alphabet, however, the glottal stop is written with a reversed apostrophe, (called ‘okina in Hawaiian and Samoan), which is used to transcribe the Arabic ayin as well and is the source of the IPA character for the voiced pharyngeal fricative.
The {{okina}}okina, also called by several other names, is a unicameral consonant letter used within the Latin script to mark the phonemic glottal stop, as it is used in many Polynesian languages.

Ayin

عʿayinʿayn
In many Polynesian languages that use the Latin alphabet, however, the glottal stop is written with a reversed apostrophe, (called ‘okina in Hawaiian and Samoan), which is used to transcribe the Arabic ayin as well and is the source of the IPA character for the voiced pharyngeal fricative.
In some Semitic languages and dialects, the phonetic value of the letter has changed, or the phoneme has been lost altogether (thus, in Modern Hebrew it is reduced to a glottal stop or is omitted entirely).

International Phonetic Alphabet

IPAPronunciationInternational Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is.
Some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, has the form of a dotless question mark, and derives originally from an apostrophe.

Polynesian languages

PolynesianPolynesian languageEastern Polynesian
In many Polynesian languages that use the Latin alphabet, however, the glottal stop is written with a reversed apostrophe, (called ‘okina in Hawaiian and Samoan), which is used to transcribe the Arabic ayin as well and is the source of the IPA character for the voiced pharyngeal fricative.
The legendary homeland of many Polynesian peoples, reconstructed as *sawaiki, appears as Hawaiki among the Māori of New Zealand with s replaced by h; but 'Avaiki in the Cook Islands with s replaced by the glottal stop, and w by v; as Hawai'i, the name of the largest island in the Hawaiian Islands, with s replaced by h, and k by the glottal stop; as Savai'i, the largest island in Samoa, with w replaced by v, and k by the glottal stop; and as Havai'i in the Society Islands with s replaced by h, w replaced by v, and k by the glottal stop.

Phonation

voicingvoice qualityphonatory
* Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibration of the vocal cords; necessarily so, because the vocal cords are held tightly together, preventing vibration.
If the arytenoids are pressed together for glottal closure, the vocal cords block the airstream, producing stop sounds such as the glottal stop.

Aleph

alifAlefא
Other scripts also have letters used for representing the glottal stop, such as the Hebrew letter aleph and the Cyrillic letter palochka, used in several Caucasian languages.
In most Hebrew dialects as well as Syriac, the glottal onset represented by aleph is an absence of a true consonant although a glottal stop, which is a true consonant, typically occurs as an allophone.

Heng (letter)

hengLatin letter Heng
Modern Latin alphabets for various Indigenous Languages of the Caucasus use the letter heng .
Heng is primarily used in modern Latin alphabets for various Indigenous Languages of the Caucasus to represent the glottal stop [].

Voiced pharyngeal fricative

ʕpharyngeal approximantepiglottal approximant
In many Polynesian languages that use the Latin alphabet, however, the glottal stop is written with a reversed apostrophe, (called ‘okina in Hawaiian and Samoan), which is used to transcribe the Arabic ayin as well and is the source of the IPA character for the voiced pharyngeal fricative.
For example, the candidate sound in Arabic and standard Hebrew (not modern Hebrew – Israelis generally pronounce this as a glottal stop) has been variously described as a voiced epiglottal fricative, an epiglottal approximant, or a pharyngealized glottal stop.

Samoan language

SamoanSāmoansmo
In many Polynesian languages that use the Latin alphabet, however, the glottal stop is written with a reversed apostrophe, (called ‘okina in Hawaiian and Samoan), which is used to transcribe the Arabic ayin as well and is the source of the IPA character for the voiced pharyngeal fricative.
The (koma liliu or ʻokina) is used for the glottal stop.

Glottal stop (letter)

glottal stopɁɁ and ɂ
In some of them, it occurs as a pair of uppercase and lowercase characters, Ɂ and ɂ.
The character, called glottal stop, is an alphabetic letter in some Latin alphabets, most notable in several languages of Canada where it indicates a glottal stop sound.

Võro language

Võrosouthern EstonianSouth
In Malay the glottal stop is represented by the letter, in Võro and Maltese by.
The letter q stands for the glottal stop and y denotes, a vowel very close to Russian ы or Polish y (from 2005 written õ).

Glottis

glottalglotticglottal opening
The glottal stop or glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
In many accents of English the glottal stop (made by pressing the folds together) is used as a variant allophone of the phoneme (and in some dialects, occasionally of and ); in some languages, this sound is a phoneme of its own.

T-glottalization

T-glottalisationT glottalisationt''-glottalization
In English, the glottal stop occurs as an open juncture (for example, between the vowel sounds in uh-oh!, ) and allophonically in t-glottalization.
In English phonology, t-glottalization or t-glottaling is a sound change in certain English dialects and accents that causes the phoneme to be pronounced as the glottal stop in certain positions.

Mandarin Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin dialects
There are intricate interactions between falling tone and the glottal stop in the histories of such languages as Danish (see stød), Chinese and Thai.
The final stops of Middle Chinese have disappeared in most of these varieties, but some have merged them as a final glottal stop.

Stød

vestjysk stød
There are intricate interactions between falling tone and the glottal stop in the histories of such languages as Danish (see stød), Chinese and Thai.
Stød (, also occasionally spelled stod) is a suprasegmental unit of Danish phonology (represented in IPA as or in non-standard IPA as ), which in its most common form is a kind of creaky voice (laryngealization), but it may also be realized as a glottal stop, especially in emphatic pronunciation.

Modifier letter apostrophe

ʼapostrophesingle apostrophe .
In Tundra Nenets, it is represented by the letters apostrophe and double apostrophe.
It denotes a glottal stop (IPA ) in orthographies of many languages, such as Nenets and the artificial Klingon language.

Hebrew alphabet

HebrewHebrew scriptHebrew letters
Other scripts also have letters used for representing the glottal stop, such as the Hebrew letter aleph and the Cyrillic letter palochka, used in several Caucasian languages.
E.g., in אִם ("if", ), אֵם ("mother", ) and אֹם ("nut", ), the letter א always represents the same consonant: (glottal stop), whereas the vowels /i/, /e/ and /o/ respectively represent the spoken vowel, whether it is orthographically denoted by diacritics or not.

Hamza

hamzahءalef hamza
Hamza is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop.

Hawaiian language

HawaiianHawaiian forHawaii
In many Polynesian languages that use the Latin alphabet, however, the glottal stop is written with a reversed apostrophe, (called ‘okina in Hawaiian and Samoan), which is used to transcribe the Arabic ayin as well and is the source of the IPA character for the voiced pharyngeal fricative.
ʻOkina (oki 'cut' + -na '-ing') is the modern Hawaiian name for the symbol (a letter) that represents the glottal stop.

Received Pronunciation

RPQueen's EnglishBBC English
In Received Pronunciation, a glottal stop is inserted before a tautosyllabic voiceless stop: sto’p, tha’t, kno’ck, wa’tch, also lea’p, soa’k, hel’p, pin’ch.
Syllable final,,, and may be either preceded by a glottal stop (glottal reinforcement) or, in the case of, fully replaced by a glottal stop, especially before a syllabic nasal (bitten ).

Modifier letter double apostrophe

ˮdouble apostropheletter double apostrophe
In Tundra Nenets, it is represented by the letters apostrophe and double apostrophe.
It is used in the orthography of Tundra Nenets to denote a glottal stop, and in the orthography of Dan to indicate that a syllable has a top tone.

Creaky-voiced glottal approximant

creaky voiced glottal approximantvoiced glottal approximant
In many languages, the unstressed intervocalic allophone of the glottal stop is a creaky-voiced glottal approximant.
It is an intervocalic allophone of a glottal stop in many languages.

Arabic

Arabic languageArabic-languageArab
The phonological differences between these two dialects account for some of the complexities of Arabic writing, most notably the writing of the glottal stop or hamzah (which was preserved in the eastern dialects but lost in western speech) and the use of ' (representing a sound preserved in the western dialects but merged with ' in eastern speech).

Gimi language

Gimigim
It is known to be contrastive in only one language, Gimi, in which it is the voiced equivalent of the stop.
The voiceless glottal is simply a glottal stop.

Allophone

allophonicallophonesallophony
Although this segment is not a phoneme in English, it occurs phonetically in nearly all dialects of English, as an allophone of in the syllable coda.