Glufosinate

phosphinothricinglufosinate ammonium
Glufosinate (also known as phosphinothricin and often sold as an ammonium salt) is a naturally occurring broad-spectrum systemic herbicide produced by several species of Streptomyces soil bacteria.wikipedia
63 Related Articles

Bialaphos

Plants may also metabolize bialaphos, another naturally occurring herbicide, directly into glufosinate. In the 1960s and early 1970s, scientists at University of Tübingen and at the Meiji Seika Kaisha Company independently discovered that species of Streptomyces bacteria produce a tripeptide they called bialaphos that inhibits bacteria; it consists of two alanine residues and a unique amino acid that is an analog of glutamate that they named "phosphinothricin".
Bialaphos is a protoxin and nontoxic as is. When it is metabolized by the plant, the glutamic acid analog glufosinate is released which inhibits glutamine synthetase.

Herbicide

herbicidesherbicidalweed killer
Glufosinate (also known as phosphinothricin and often sold as an ammonium salt) is a naturally occurring broad-spectrum systemic herbicide produced by several species of Streptomyces soil bacteria.
Glufosinate ammonium, a broad-spectrum contact herbicide, is used to control weeds after the crop emerges or for total vegetation control on land not used for cultivation.

Crop desiccation

crop desiccant
use as a crop desiccation to facilitate harvesting
Herbicides used include glyphosate, diquat and glufosinate.

Glutamine synthetase

glutamate-ammonia ligaseGLULGS
The compound irreversibly inhibits glutamine synthetase, an enzyme necessary for the production of glutamine and for ammonia detoxification, giving it antibacterial, antifungal and herbicidal properties.
Phosphinothricin (PPT, Glufosinate): Phosphinothricin is an inhibitor that binds to the glutamate site. Glufosinate is used as an herbicide. Glufosinate treated plants die due to a buildup of ammonia and a cessation of photosynthesis.

Phosphinothricin acetyltransferase

phosphinothricin-N- acetyl-transferase
In the late 1980s scientists discovered enzymes in these Streptomyces species that selectively inactivate free phosphinothricin; the gene encoding the enzyme that was isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus was called the "bialaphos resistance" or "bar" gene, and the gene encoding the enzyme in Streptomyces viridochromeogenes was called "phosphinothricin acetyltransferase" or "pat".
The substrate phosphinothricin is used as a nonselective herbicide and is a potent inhibitor of EC 6.3.1.2.

Genetically modified crops

genetically modifiedtransgenic cropsgenetically modified crop
directed sprays for weed control, including in genetically modified crops
Crops have been commercialized that are resistant to the herbicide glufosinate, as well.

Ammonium

ammonium saltammonium ionNH 4 +
Glufosinate (also known as phosphinothricin and often sold as an ammonium salt) is a naturally occurring broad-spectrum systemic herbicide produced by several species of Streptomyces soil bacteria.

Streptomyces

streptomycetesStreptomyces griseusStreptomyces lividans
Glufosinate (also known as phosphinothricin and often sold as an ammonium salt) is a naturally occurring broad-spectrum systemic herbicide produced by several species of Streptomyces soil bacteria. In the 1960s and early 1970s, scientists at University of Tübingen and at the Meiji Seika Kaisha Company independently discovered that species of Streptomyces bacteria produce a tripeptide they called bialaphos that inhibits bacteria; it consists of two alanine residues and a unique amino acid that is an analog of glutamate that they named "phosphinothricin".

Antibiotic

antibioticsantibacterialantibacterials
The compound irreversibly inhibits glutamine synthetase, an enzyme necessary for the production of glutamine and for ammonia detoxification, giving it antibacterial, antifungal and herbicidal properties.

Antifungal

antifungal medicationantifungal drugantifungals
The compound irreversibly inhibits glutamine synthetase, an enzyme necessary for the production of glutamine and for ammonia detoxification, giving it antibacterial, antifungal and herbicidal properties.

Glutamine

Gln L -glutamineQ
Application of glufosinate to plants leads to reduced glutamine and elevated ammonia levels in tissues, halting photosynthesis, resulting in plant death.

Ammonia

NH 3 anhydrous ammonialiquid ammonia
Application of glufosinate to plants leads to reduced glutamine and elevated ammonia levels in tissues, halting photosynthesis, resulting in plant death.

Photosynthesis

photosyntheticphotosynthesizephotosynthesizing
Application of glufosinate to plants leads to reduced glutamine and elevated ammonia levels in tissues, halting photosynthesis, resulting in plant death.

University of Tübingen

TübingenTübingen UniversityEberhard Karls University
In the 1960s and early 1970s, scientists at University of Tübingen and at the Meiji Seika Kaisha Company independently discovered that species of Streptomyces bacteria produce a tripeptide they called bialaphos that inhibits bacteria; it consists of two alanine residues and a unique amino acid that is an analog of glutamate that they named "phosphinothricin".

Meiji Seika

MeijiMeiji Seika Kaisha Ltd.Meiji Black
In the 1960s and early 1970s, scientists at University of Tübingen and at the Meiji Seika Kaisha Company independently discovered that species of Streptomyces bacteria produce a tripeptide they called bialaphos that inhibits bacteria; it consists of two alanine residues and a unique amino acid that is an analog of glutamate that they named "phosphinothricin".

Alanine

AlaA D -Alanine
In the 1960s and early 1970s, scientists at University of Tübingen and at the Meiji Seika Kaisha Company independently discovered that species of Streptomyces bacteria produce a tripeptide they called bialaphos that inhibits bacteria; it consists of two alanine residues and a unique amino acid that is an analog of glutamate that they named "phosphinothricin".

Amino acid

amino acidsresiduesresidue
In the 1960s and early 1970s, scientists at University of Tübingen and at the Meiji Seika Kaisha Company independently discovered that species of Streptomyces bacteria produce a tripeptide they called bialaphos that inhibits bacteria; it consists of two alanine residues and a unique amino acid that is an analog of glutamate that they named "phosphinothricin".

Glutamic acid

glutamateGluglutamate metabolism
In the 1960s and early 1970s, scientists at University of Tübingen and at the Meiji Seika Kaisha Company independently discovered that species of Streptomyces bacteria produce a tripeptide they called bialaphos that inhibits bacteria; it consists of two alanine residues and a unique amino acid that is an analog of glutamate that they named "phosphinothricin".

Hoechst AG

HoechstFarbwerke HoechstHoechst Japan
Phosphinothricin was first synthesized by scientists at Hoechst in the 1970s as a racemic mixture; this racemic mixture is called glufosinate and is the commercially relevant version of the chemical.

Racemic mixture

racemicracemateracemates
Phosphinothricin was first synthesized by scientists at Hoechst in the 1970s as a racemic mixture; this racemic mixture is called glufosinate and is the commercially relevant version of the chemical.

Streptomyces hygroscopicus

S. hygroscopicus
In the late 1980s scientists discovered enzymes in these Streptomyces species that selectively inactivate free phosphinothricin; the gene encoding the enzyme that was isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus was called the "bialaphos resistance" or "bar" gene, and the gene encoding the enzyme in Streptomyces viridochromeogenes was called "phosphinothricin acetyltransferase" or "pat".

Streptomyces viridochromeogenes

S. viridochromogenes
In the late 1980s scientists discovered enzymes in these Streptomyces species that selectively inactivate free phosphinothricin; the gene encoding the enzyme that was isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus was called the "bialaphos resistance" or "bar" gene, and the gene encoding the enzyme in Streptomyces viridochromeogenes was called "phosphinothricin acetyltransferase" or "pat".

Morning glory

morning gloriescoast morning gloryflower
Glufosinate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is used to control important weeds such as morning glories, hemp sesbania (Sesbania bispinosa), Pennsylvania smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum) and yellow nutsedge similar to glyphosate.

Sesbania bispinosa

Glufosinate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is used to control important weeds such as morning glories, hemp sesbania (Sesbania bispinosa), Pennsylvania smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum) and yellow nutsedge similar to glyphosate.

Polygonum pensylvanicum

Pennsylvania smartweed
Glufosinate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is used to control important weeds such as morning glories, hemp sesbania (Sesbania bispinosa), Pennsylvania smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum) and yellow nutsedge similar to glyphosate.