Glufosinate (also known as phosphinothricin and often sold as an ammonium salt) is a naturally occurring broad-spectrum systemic herbicide produced by several species of Streptomyces soil bacteria.wikipedia
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Plants may also metabolize bialaphos, another naturally occurring herbicide, directly into glufosinate.
Bialaphos is a protoxin and nontoxic as is. When it is metabolized by the plant, the glutamic acid analog glufosinate is released which inhibits glutamine synthetase.
use as a crop desiccation to facilitate harvesting
Herbicides used include glyphosate, diquat and glufosinate.
Glufosinate (also known as phosphinothricin and often sold as an ammonium salt) is a naturally occurring broad-spectrum systemic herbicide produced by several species of Streptomyces soil bacteria.
Glufosinate ammonium, a broad-spectrum contact herbicide, is used to control weeds after the crop emerges or for total vegetation control on land not used for cultivation.
In the late 1980s scientists discovered enzymes in these Streptomyces species that selectively inactivate free phosphinothricin; the gene encoding the enzyme that was isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus was called the "bialaphos resistance" or "bar" gene, and the gene encoding the enzyme in Streptomyces viridochromeogenes was called "phosphinothricin acetyltransferase" or "pat".
The substrate phosphinothricin is used as a nonselective herbicide and is a potent inhibitor of EC 18.104.22.168.
The compound irreversibly inhibits glutamine synthetase, an enzyme necessary for the production of glutamine and for ammonia detoxification, giving it antibacterial, antifungal and herbicidal properties.
Phosphinothricin (PPT, Glufosinate): Phosphinothricin is an inhibitor that binds to the glutamate site. Glufosinate is used as an herbicide. Glufosinate treated plants die due to a buildup of ammonia and a cessation of photosynthesis.
genetically modifiedtransgenic cropsgenetically modified crop
directed sprays for weed control, including in genetically modified crops
Crops have been commercialized that are resistant to the herbicide glufosinate, as well.
StarLink is a genetically modified maize, containing two modifications: a gene for resistance to glufosinate, and a variant of the bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein called Cry9C.
genetically modified cornBt cornBt maize
Bayer CropScience developed "Liberty Link Corn" that is resistant to glufosinate.
LibertyLink is a BASF owned brand of genes for use in agriculture providing tolerance to Liberty herbicide and glufosinate (a.k.a. Liberty or Basta).
LibertyLink rice is resistant to glufosinate (the active chemical in Liberty herbicide).
Other enzymes also belong to this family including carboxyvinyl-carboxyphosphonate phosphorylmutase which catalyses the conversion of 1-carboxyvinyl carboxyphosphonate to 3-(hydrohydroxyphosphoryl) pyruvate carbon dioxide, and phosphoenolpyruvate mutase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of phosphinothricin tripeptide antibiotics.
A commercially significant member is the herbicide Glufosinate.
ammonium sulphate(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ammonium sulphate solution
It is particularly effective as an adjuvant for 2,4-D (amine), glyphosate, and glufosinate herbicides.
Approval has been granted to grow crops engineered to be resistant to the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dicamba, glufosinate glyphosate, sulfonylurea, oxynil mesotrione and isoxaflutole Most herbicide resistant GM crops have been engineered for glyphosate tolerance, in the USA 93% of soybeans and most of the GM maize grown is glyphosate tolerant.
canolacanola (rapeseed)canola (rapeseed) oil
A 2010 study conducted in North Dakota found glyphosate- or glufosinate-resistance transgenes in 80% of wild natural rapeseed plants, and a few plants that were resistant to both herbicides.
This enzyme is responsible for detoxifying the active ingredient in the herbicide Glufosinate : phosphinothricin.
E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Companydu PontDuPont Company
Genes engineered into their products include LibertyLink, which provides resistance to Bayer's Ignite Herbicide/Liberty herbicides; the Herculex I Insect Protection gene, which provides protection against various insects; the Herculex RW insect protection trait, which provides protection against other insects; the YieldGard Corn Borer gene, which provides resistance to another set of insects; and the Roundup Ready Corn 2 trait that provides crop resistance against glyphosate herbicides.
Effective active ingredients include those that are glyphosate-based (Roundup, Glyphogan, Glialka), sulfosate-based (Medallon), and glufosinate ammonium-based (Finale 14SL).
Examples of selection markers include neomycin phosphotransferase, hygromycin B phosphotransferase (which both phosphorylate antibiotics) and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (which acetylates and deactivates phosphinothricin, a potent inhibitor of glutamine synthetase) or a herbicide formulations such as Basta or Bialophos.
Bayer AGBayer CropScienceBayer Pharmaceuticals
Herbicides are marketed primarily for field crops and orchards. Liberty brands containing glufosinate are used for general weed control. Capreno containing a mixture of thiencarbazone-methyl and tembotrione is used for grass and broad-leaf control.
To deal with rising resistance to existing herbicides, Bayer CropScience has been developing various genetically modified crops resistant to HPPD inhibitors: in one version, the crops are resistant to both HPPD inhibitors and glyphosate, and in collaboration with Syngenta, crops that are resistant to HPPD inhibitors and glufosinate.
LibertyLink gene used in plants to give resistance to the herbicide glufosinate.
For agriculture and the environment, landscapes exist to describe the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of plants, promoters used to regulate gene expression, antibiotic resistance genes and their uses in plant genetic transformation, resistance to Phosphinothricin, positive selection, bioindicators/ambiosensors, and the rice genome.
Basta (herbicide) or glufosinate, a herbicide
pGreenII 0229: derived from pGreenII 0000, a nos-bar cassette has been inserted into the HpaI site of the Left Border, providing resistance to bialaphos or phosphinothricin during plant transformation selection.