Glutathione peroxidase

glutathione peroxidase 4glutathion peroxidases
Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is the general name of an enzyme family with peroxidase activity whose main biological role is to protect the organism from oxidative damage.wikipedia
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GPX1

Glutathione peroxidase 1
Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) is the most abundant version, found in the cytoplasm of nearly all mammalian tissues, whose preferred substrate is hydrogen peroxide. Mammalian GPx1, GPx2, GPx3, and GPx4 have been shown to be selenium-containing enzymes, whereas GPx6 is a selenoprotein in humans with cysteine-containing homologues in rodents.
This gene encodes a member of the glutathione peroxidase family.

Peroxidase

peroxidaseshorseradish peroxidaselysosomal enzyme
Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is the general name of an enzyme family with peroxidase activity whose main biological role is to protect the organism from oxidative damage.
The glutathione peroxidase family consists of 8 known human isoforms.

GPX4

Glutathione peroxidase 4
Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) has a high preference for lipid hydroperoxides; it is expressed in nearly every mammalian cell, though at much lower levels. Mammalian GPx1, GPx2, GPx3, and GPx4 have been shown to be selenium-containing enzymes, whereas GPx6 is a selenoprotein in humans with cysteine-containing homologues in rodents.
The antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) belongs to the family of glutathione peroxidases, which consists of 8 known mammalian isoenzymes (GPx1-8).

Selenocysteine

L-selenocysteineSeC 3 NO 2 H 7 selenoamino acid
Selenocysteine is present in several enzymes (for example glutathione peroxidases, tetraiodothyronine 5′ deiodinases, thioredoxin reductases, formate dehydrogenases, glycine reductases, selenophosphate synthetase 2, methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase B1 (SEPX1), and some hydrogenases).

GPX5

GPx-5 belongs to the glutathione peroxidase family.

Glutathione disulfide

GSSGoxidized glutathione
Antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidases and peroxiredoxins, generate glutathione disulfide during the reduction of peroxides such as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and organic hydroperoxides (ROOH):

Selenium

SeSe 3 selenium poisoning
Mammalian GPx1, GPx2, GPx3, and GPx4 have been shown to be selenium-containing enzymes, whereas GPx6 is a selenoprotein in humans with cysteine-containing homologues in rodents. As the integrity of the cellular and subcellular membranes depends heavily on glutathione peroxidase, its antioxidative protective system itself depends heavily on the presence of selenium.
It is a component of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase (which indirectly reduce certain oxidized molecules in animals and some plants).

Selenoprotein

selenoproteins
Mammalian GPx1, GPx2, GPx3, and GPx4 have been shown to be selenium-containing enzymes, whereas GPx6 is a selenoprotein in humans with cysteine-containing homologues in rodents.
Among functionally characterized selenoproteins are five glutathione peroxidases (GPX) and three thioredoxin reductases, (TrxR/TXNRD) which both contain only one Sec.

Glutathione

glutathione metabolismglutathionylGSH
As the integrity of the cellular and subcellular membranes depends heavily on glutathione peroxidase, its antioxidative protective system itself depends heavily on the presence of selenium.
It is a cofactor and acts on glutathione peroxidase.

GPX3

Mammalian GPx1, GPx2, GPx3, and GPx4 have been shown to be selenium-containing enzymes, whereas GPx6 is a selenoprotein in humans with cysteine-containing homologues in rodents.
GPx-3 belongs to the glutathione peroxidase family, which functions in the detoxification of hydrogen peroxide.

Selenol

methylselenolSeH
Three enzymes found in mammals contain selenols at their active sites: glutathione peroxidase, iodothyronine deiodinase, and thioredoxin reductase.

Glutathione reductase

EC 1.8.1.7glutathione-disulfide reductaseglutathione-reductase
Glutathione reductase then reduces the oxidized glutathione to complete the cycle:
Reduced glutathione reduces the oxidized form of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which in turn reduces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a dangerously reactive species within the cell.

GPX6

Mammalian GPx1, GPx2, GPx3, and GPx4 have been shown to be selenium-containing enzymes, whereas GPx6 is a selenoprotein in humans with cysteine-containing homologues in rodents.
This gene product belongs to the glutathione peroxidase family, which functions in the detoxification of hydrogen peroxide.

GPX8

GPx-8 is a member of the glutathione peroxidase family.

Antioxidant

antioxidantsanti-oxidantantioxidative
As the integrity of the cellular and subcellular membranes depends heavily on glutathione peroxidase, its antioxidative protective system itself depends heavily on the presence of selenium.
In cells, glutathione is maintained in the reduced form by the enzyme glutathione reductase and in turn reduces other metabolites and enzyme systems, such as ascorbate in the glutathione-ascorbate cycle, glutathione peroxidases and glutaredoxins, as well as reacting directly with oxidants.

Selenium deficiency

dietary deficiency of seleniumseleniumselenium deficiencies
55 µg/day recommendation is based on full expression of plasma glutathione peroxidase.

Superoxide dismutase

SODorgoteinSOD1
In one study, the activity of glutathione peroxidase along with other antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase was not associated with coronary heart disease risk in women.

Catalase

catalase testcatalase-negativeCAT
In one study, the activity of glutathione peroxidase along with other antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase was not associated with coronary heart disease risk in women.

Enzyme

enzymologyenzymesenzymatic
Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is the general name of an enzyme family with peroxidase activity whose main biological role is to protect the organism from oxidative damage.

Lipid

lipidsglycerolipidfat
The biochemical function of glutathione peroxidase is to reduce lipid hydroperoxides to their corresponding alcohols and to reduce free hydrogen peroxide to water.

Organic peroxide

peroxidehydroperoxidesendoperoxide
The biochemical function of glutathione peroxidase is to reduce lipid hydroperoxides to their corresponding alcohols and to reduce free hydrogen peroxide to water.

Alcohol

alcoholssecondary alcoholtertiary alcohol
The biochemical function of glutathione peroxidase is to reduce lipid hydroperoxides to their corresponding alcohols and to reduce free hydrogen peroxide to water.

Hydrogen peroxide

H 2 O 2 H2O2HO
The biochemical function of glutathione peroxidase is to reduce lipid hydroperoxides to their corresponding alcohols and to reduce free hydrogen peroxide to water.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
Several isozymes are encoded by different genes, which vary in cellular location and substrate specificity.