Gluten

glutinouswheat glutenglutingluten-containing cerealsgluten-containing grainsglutenous
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins that is stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.wikipedia
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Wheat

cornTriticumdwarf wheat
It is found in wheat, barley, rye, oats and related species and hybrids (such as spelt, khorasan, emmer, einkorn, triticale, etc.), as well as products derived from these grains (such as breads and malts).
Global demand for wheat is increasing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods, whose consumption is increasing as a result of the worldwide industrialization process and the westernization of the diet.

Glutelin

Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins that is stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.
They constitute a major component of the protein composite collectively referred to as gluten.

Triticeae glutens

Triticeae'' glutensglutenglutens
Glutens, and most especially the Triticeae glutens, are appreciated for their viscoelastic properties, which give dough its elasticity, helping it rise and keep its shape and often leaving the final product with a chewy texture.
Gluten is the seed storage protein in mature wheat seeds (and in the seeds of closely related species).

Leavening agent

leavenedunleavenedleavening
Glutens, and most especially the Triticeae glutens, are appreciated for their viscoelastic properties, which give dough its elasticity, helping it rise and keep its shape and often leaving the final product with a chewy texture.
When a dough or batter is mixed, the starch in the flour and the water in the dough form a matrix (often supported further by proteins like gluten or polysaccharides, such as pentosans or xanthan gum).

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity

gluten sensitivitynon-coeliac gluten sensitivitygluten sensitive
In a small part of the general human population, gluten can trigger adverse autoimmune reactions responsible for a broad spectrum of gluten-related disorders, including coeliac disease, non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia and dermatitis herpetiformis.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".

Gliadin

Wheat, barley, rye and oat prolamins are respectively known as gliadins, hordeins, secalins and avenins; these protein classes are often collectively referred to as gluten.
Gliadins, which are a component of gluten, are essential for giving bread the ability to rise properly during baking.

Bread

breadsbreadmakingleavened bread
It is found in wheat, barley, rye, oats and related species and hybrids (such as spelt, khorasan, emmer, einkorn, triticale, etc.), as well as products derived from these grains (such as breads and malts).
Owing to its high levels of gluten (which give the dough sponginess and elasticity), common or bread wheat is the most common grain used for the preparation of bread, which makes the largest single contribution to the world's food supply of any food.

Oat

oatsaveninAvena sativa
It is found in wheat, barley, rye, oats and related species and hybrids (such as spelt, khorasan, emmer, einkorn, triticale, etc.), as well as products derived from these grains (such as breads and malts). Wheat, barley, rye and oat prolamins are respectively known as gliadins, hordeins, secalins and avenins; these protein classes are often collectively referred to as gluten.
Also, oat products are frequently contaminated by other gluten-containing grains, mainly wheat and barley.

Maize

corncorn (maize)Zea mays
The storage proteins in maize and rice are sometimes called glutens, but they differ from true gluten.
It lacks the protein gluten of wheat and, therefore, makes baked goods with poor rising capability.

Dermatitis herpetiformis

Duhring's diseaseskin condition
In a small part of the general human population, gluten can trigger adverse autoimmune reactions responsible for a broad spectrum of gluten-related disorders, including coeliac disease, non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia and dermatitis herpetiformis.
Untreated, the severity of DH may vary significantly over time, in response to the amount of gluten ingested.

Khorasan wheat

kamutKhorasanoriental wheat
It is found in wheat, barley, rye, oats and related species and hybrids (such as spelt, khorasan, emmer, einkorn, triticale, etc.), as well as products derived from these grains (such as breads and malts).
As kamut contains gluten, it is unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers, among others.

Secalin

Wheat, barley, rye and oat prolamins are respectively known as gliadins, hordeins, secalins and avenins; these protein classes are often collectively referred to as gluten.
Secalin is one of the forms of gluten proteins that people with coeliac disease cannot tolerate, and thus rye should be avoided by people with this disease.

Spelt

hulled wheatSpelt breadspelt crust
It is found in wheat, barley, rye, oats and related species and hybrids (such as spelt, khorasan, emmer, einkorn, triticale, etc.), as well as products derived from these grains (such as breads and malts).
Spelt contains gluten and is therefore suitable for baking, but this component also makes it unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and wheat allergy.

Dough

Unleavened doughYeast doughaiysh
Glutens, and most especially the Triticeae glutens, are appreciated for their viscoelastic properties, which give dough its elasticity, helping it rise and keep its shape and often leaving the final product with a chewy texture. In home or restaurant cooking, gluten is prepared from flour by kneading the flour under water, agglomerating the gluten into an elastic network known as a dough, and then washing out the starch.
Kneading is the process of working a dough to produce a smooth, elastic dough by developing gluten.

Flour

farinaceouswhite flourmeal
In home or restaurant cooking, gluten is prepared from flour by kneading the flour under water, agglomerating the gluten into an elastic network known as a dough, and then washing out the starch.
A bleaching agent would affect only the carotenoids in the flour; a maturing agent affects gluten development.

Rye

winter ryerye flourLargest rye producer
It is found in wheat, barley, rye, oats and related species and hybrids (such as spelt, khorasan, emmer, einkorn, triticale, etc.), as well as products derived from these grains (such as breads and malts).
It therefore has a lower gluten content than wheat flour.

Wheat gluten (food)

wheat glutenseitanwheat protein
Gluten, especially wheat gluten, is often the basis for imitation meats resembling beef, chicken, duck (see mock duck), fish and pork.
Wheat gluten is a food made from gluten, the main protein of wheat.

Staling

stalestale breadantistaling
Gluten content has been implicated as a factor in the staling of bread, possibly because it binds water through hydration.
Anti-staling agents used in bread include wheat gluten, enzymes, and glycerolipids, mainly monoglycerides and diglycerides.

Meat analogue

meat substitutemeat substitutesmeat alternatives
Gluten, especially wheat gluten, is often the basis for imitation meats resembling beef, chicken, duck (see mock duck), fish and pork.
Many analogues are soy-based (e.g. tofu, tempeh) or gluten-based, but now may also be pea protein-based.

Pastry

pastriespastry doughcrust
Further refining of the gluten leads to chewier doughs such as those found in pizza and bagels, while less refining yields tender baked goods such as pastry products.
This ensures that the flour granules are adequately coated with fat and less likely to develop gluten.

Mock duck

Gluten, especially wheat gluten, is often the basis for imitation meats resembling beef, chicken, duck (see mock duck), fish and pork.
Mock duck is a gluten-based vegetarian food.

No-knead bread

no-knead
An increased moisture content in the dough enhances gluten development, and very wet doughs left to rise for a long time require no kneading (see no-knead bread).
No-knead bread is a method of bread baking that uses a very long fermentation (rising) time instead of kneading to form the gluten strands that give the bread its texture.

Storage protein

Protein storageseed storage proteinsstorage
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins that is stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.
The best known storage protein in wheat is the prolamin gliadin, a component of gluten.

Barley

malting barleysix-row barleyH. vulgare
It is found in wheat, barley, rye, oats and related species and hybrids (such as spelt, khorasan, emmer, einkorn, triticale, etc.), as well as products derived from these grains (such as breads and malts).
Like wheat, rye, and their hybrids and derivatives, barley contains gluten, which makes it an unsuitable grain for consumption by people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers, among others.

Coeliac disease

celiac diseasecoeliacceliac
In a small part of the general human population, gluten can trigger adverse autoimmune reactions responsible for a broad spectrum of gluten-related disorders, including coeliac disease, non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia and dermatitis herpetiformis.
Coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to gluten, a group of various proteins found in wheat and in other grains such as barley and rye.