Gluten-free diet

gluten-freegluten freegluten free dietGluten-free foodceliac-safe fooddoes not eat glutenglutenGluten-free breadsgluten-free flourgluten-free product
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).wikipedia
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Coeliac disease

celiac diseasecoeliacceliac
Gluten causes health problems for those with gluten-related disorders, including coeliac disease (CD), non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), and wheat allergy.
The only known effective treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet, which leads to recovery of the intestinal mucosa, improves symptoms and reduces risk of developing complications in most people.

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity

gluten sensitivitynon-coeliac gluten sensitivitygluten sensitive
Gluten causes health problems for those with gluten-related disorders, including coeliac disease (CD), non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), and wheat allergy.
Many people have not been diagnosed following strict criteria and there is a "fad component" to the recent rise in popularity of the gluten-free diet, which leads to debate surrounding the evidence for this condition, its relationship to celiac disease and to irritable bowel syndrome.

Wheat allergy

Wheatallergic to wheatbaker's asthma
Gluten causes health problems for those with gluten-related disorders, including coeliac disease (CD), non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), and wheat allergy.
Management of wheat allergy consists of complete withdrawal of any food containing wheat and other gluten-containing cereals (gluten-free diet).

Gluten

glutinouswheat glutenglutin
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).
Their treatment is the gluten-free diet.

Gluten-related disorders

gluten intolerancegluten-sensitive enteropathygluten sensitivity
Gluten causes health problems for those with gluten-related disorders, including coeliac disease (CD), non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), and wheat allergy.
The main and more efficacious treatment for DH is following a lifelong gluten-free diet, which produces the improvement of skin and gut lesions.

Irritable bowel syndrome

IBSbowelirritable bowel
In addition, a gluten-free diet may, in at least some cases, improve gastrointestinal or systemic symptoms in diseases like irritable bowel syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis or HIV enteropathy, among others.
An improvement with a gluten-free diet of immune-mediated symptoms, including autoimmune diseases, once having reasonably ruled out coeliac disease and wheat allergy, is another way to realize a differential diagnosis.

Oat

oatsaveninAvena sativa
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).
Use of pure oats in a gluten-free diet offers improved nutritional value from the rich content of oat protein, vitamins, minerals, fiber, and lipids, but remains controversial because a small proportion of people with celiac disease react to pure oats.

Quinoa

C. quinoakinwaquinua
If commercially prepared, gluten-free replacement products are used, choosing those that are enriched or fortified with vitamins and minerals is preferable. Pseudocereals (quinoa, amaranth, and buckwheat) and some minor cereals are healthy alternatives to these prepared products and have high biological and nutritional value. The gluten-free diet includes naturally gluten-free food, such as meat, fish, seafood, eggs, milk and dairy products, nuts, legumes, fruit, vegetables, potatoes, pseudocereals (in particular amaranth, buckwheat, chia seed, quinoa), only certain cereal grains (corn, rice, sorghum), minor cereals (including fonio, Job's tears, millet, teff, called "minor" cereals as they are "less common and are only grown in a few small regions of the world"), some other plant products (arrowroot, mesquite flour, sago, tapioca ) and products made from these gluten-free foods.
Quinoa is gluten-free.

William Davis (cardiologist)

Wheat Belly: Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to HealthWilliam Davis
Another book that has had great impact is Wheat Belly: Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health, by the cardiologist William Davis, which refers to wheat as a "chronic poison" and became a New York Times bestseller within a month of publication in 2011.
In a review of May 2015 published in Gastroenterology, Fasano et al. conclude that, although there is an evident "fad component" to the recent rise in popularity of the gluten-free diet, there is also growing and unquestionable evidence of the existence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS).

Wheat

cornTriticumdwarf wheat
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).
The only known effective treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet.

Aphthous stomatitis

aphthous ulceraphthous ulcerscanker sores
Gastrointestinal symptoms may include any of the following: abdominal pain, bloating, bowel habit abnormalities (either diarrhoea or constipation), nausea, aerophagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and aphthous stomatitis.
Despite this association, a gluten-free diet does not usually improve the oral ulceration.

2010s in food

2010s in food
Gluten-free diets became popular.

Dermatitis herpetiformis

Duhring's diseaseskin condition
Gluten causes health problems for those with gluten-related disorders, including coeliac disease (CD), non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), and wheat allergy. CD is associated with some autoimmune diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 1, thyroiditis, gluten ataxia, psoriasis, vitiligo, autoimmune hepatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and more.
A strict gluten-free diet must be followed, and usually, this treatment will be a lifelong requirement.

Fad diet

crash dietfad dietsfood faddism
Since the beginning of the 21st century, the gluten-free diet has become the most popular fad diet in the United States and other countries.
Gluten free diet, while essential for people with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity, has also been a fad.

Lactose intolerance

lactose intolerantlactose-intolerantlactase deficiency
Approximately, 35% of people with NCGS suffer other food intolerances, mainly lactose intolerance.
In people with coeliac disease, lactose intolerance normally reverts or improves several months after starting a gluten-free diet, but temporary dietary restriction of lactose may be needed.

Diabetes mellitus type 1

type 1 diabetesjuvenile diabetestype 1
CD is associated with some autoimmune diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 1, thyroiditis, gluten ataxia, psoriasis, vitiligo, autoimmune hepatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and more.
Gluten-free diet, when performed strictly, improves diabetes symptoms and appears to have a protective effect against developing long-term complications.

Autism

autisticautistic disorderautistic children
Gluten-free diets have also been promoted as an alternative treatment of people with autism, but the current evidence for their efficacy in making any change in the symptoms of autism is limited and weak. NCGS has also been controversially implicated in some neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, eating disorders, autism, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Although popularly used as an alternative treatment for people with autism, there is no good evidence that a gluten-free diet is of benefit.

Specific carbohydrate diet

a diet of bananas
Specific Carbohydrate Diet
It is a gluten-free diet since no grains are permitted.

Psoriasis

plaque psoriasispsoriasis vulgarispsoriatic
CD is associated with some autoimmune diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 1, thyroiditis, gluten ataxia, psoriasis, vitiligo, autoimmune hepatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and more.
When adopting a gluten-free diet, disease severity generally decreases in people with celiac disease and those with anti-gliadin antibodies.

Osteoporosis

bone lossosteoporoticpostmenopausal osteoporosis
Untreated CD may cause malabsorption, reduced quality of life, iron deficiency, osteoporosis, obstetric complications (stillbirth, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, low birthweight, and small for gestational age), an increased risk of intestinal lymphomas and greater mortality.
In people with coeliac disease adherence to a gluten-free diet decreases the risk of developing osteoporosis and increases bone density.

Mesquite flour

flour
The gluten-free diet includes naturally gluten-free food, such as meat, fish, seafood, eggs, milk and dairy products, nuts, legumes, fruit, vegetables, potatoes, pseudocereals (in particular amaranth, buckwheat, chia seed, quinoa), only certain cereal grains (corn, rice, sorghum), minor cereals (including fonio, Job's tears, millet, teff, called "minor" cereals as they are "less common and are only grown in a few small regions of the world"), some other plant products (arrowroot, mesquite flour, sago, tapioca ) and products made from these gluten-free foods.
It has a high-protein, low-glycemic content and can serve as a gluten-free replacement for flours that contain gluten.

Purkinje cell

purkinje cellsPurkinjeneurons in the cerebellum
With gluten ataxia, damage takes place in the cerebellum, the balance center of the brain that controls coordination and complex movements like walking, speaking and swallowing, with loss of Purkinje cells.
Early diagnosis and treatment with a gluten-free diet can improve ataxia and prevent its progression.

Tapioca

tapioca flourtapioca pearlscasabe
The gluten-free diet includes naturally gluten-free food, such as meat, fish, seafood, eggs, milk and dairy products, nuts, legumes, fruit, vegetables, potatoes, pseudocereals (in particular amaranth, buckwheat, chia seed, quinoa), only certain cereal grains (corn, rice, sorghum), minor cereals (including fonio, Job's tears, millet, teff, called "minor" cereals as they are "less common and are only grown in a few small regions of the world"), some other plant products (arrowroot, mesquite flour, sago, tapioca ) and products made from these gluten-free foods.
People on gluten-free diets can eat bread made with tapioca flour (although these individuals have to be careful, as some tapioca flour has wheat added to it).

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADHDattention deficit disorderhyperactivity
NCGS has also been controversially implicated in some neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, eating disorders, autism, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
A 2016 review stated that the use of a gluten-free diet as standard ADHD treatment is discouraged.

Millet

milletsglutinous milletKodo
The gluten-free diet includes naturally gluten-free food, such as meat, fish, seafood, eggs, milk and dairy products, nuts, legumes, fruit, vegetables, potatoes, pseudocereals (in particular amaranth, buckwheat, chia seed, quinoa), only certain cereal grains (corn, rice, sorghum), minor cereals (including fonio, Job's tears, millet, teff, called "minor" cereals as they are "less common and are only grown in a few small regions of the world"), some other plant products (arrowroot, mesquite flour, sago, tapioca ) and products made from these gluten-free foods.
People affected by gluten-related disorders, such as coeliac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers, who need a gluten-free diet, can replace gluten-containing cereals in their diets with millet.