Glycogenesis

glycogen synthesisGlycogen biosynthesisglycogeneticglycogenic
Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage.wikipedia
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Insulin

insulin geneINShuman insulin
This process is activated during rest periods following the Cori cycle, in the liver, and also activated by insulin in response to high glucose levels.
In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen via glycogenesis or [[Fatty acid metabolism#Glycolytic end products are used in the conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids|fats]] (triglycerides) via lipogenesis, or, in the case of the liver, into both.

Liver

hepaticliver protein synthesislivers
This process is activated during rest periods following the Cori cycle, in the liver, and also activated by insulin in response to high glucose levels.
The liver performs several roles in carbohydrate metabolism: The liver synthesizes and stores around 100 g of glycogen via glycogenesis, the formation of glycogen from glucose.

UTP—glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase

UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylaseglucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferaseUDP-glucose-pyrophosphorylase
UTP—glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase is an enzyme found in all three domains (bacteria, eukarya, and archaea) as it is a key player in glycogenesis and cell wall synthesis.

Cori cycle

lactate metabolismprocessedThe Cori cycle (lactic acid cycle)
This process is activated during rest periods following the Cori cycle, in the liver, and also activated by insulin in response to high glucose levels.
If muscle activity has stopped, the glucose is used to replenish the supplies of glycogen through glycogenesis.

Glycogen synthase

GYS2glycogen(starch) synthaseGYS1
Glycogen synthase (UDP-glucose-glycogen glucosyltransferase) is a key enzyme in glycogenesis, the conversion of glucose into glycogen.

Glucose 1-phosphate

glucose-1-phosphatebeta-D-glucose 1-phosphateCori ester
In glycogenesis, free glucose 1-phosphate can also react with UTP to form UDP-glucose, by using the enzyme UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.

Adrenaline

epinephrineadrenaline junkieadrenalin
Epinephrine binds to a receptor protein that activates adenylate cyclase. Epinephrine not only activates glycogen phosphorylase but also inhibits glycogen synthase.
Binding to α-adrenergic receptors inhibits insulin secretion by the pancreas, stimulates glycogenolysis in the liver and muscle, and stimulates glycolysis and inhibits insulin-mediated glycogenesis in muscle.

Glycolysis

glycolyticglycolytic pathwayEmbden–Meyerhof pathway
Refer to glycolysis for further information of the regulation of glycogenesis.
Thus the rate of entry of glucose into cells partially depends on how fast G6P can be disposed of by glycolysis, and by glycogen synthesis (in the cells which store glycogen, namely liver and muscles).

Glycogen phosphorylase

Liver glycogen phosphorylaseliver glycogenliver phosphorylase
Epinephrine not only activates glycogen phosphorylase but also inhibits glycogen synthase.
As a result, PKA can no longer initiate the phosphorylation cascade that ends with formation of (active) glycogen phosphorylase a. Overall, insulin signaling decreases glycogenolysis to preserve glycogen stores in the cell and triggers glycogenesis.

Glycogenolysis

Glycogen

glycogen depositsglycogen (n)glycogen deposits
Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage.

Glucose

dextroseD-glucose D -glucose
Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage.

Blood sugar level

blood sugarblood glucoseblood glucose level
This process is activated during rest periods following the Cori cycle, in the liver, and also activated by insulin in response to high glucose levels.

Glucose 6-phosphate

glucose-6-phosphateG6PD-glucose 6-phosphate

Glycogenin

Glycogen branching enzyme

GBE11,4-a-glucan branching enzyme1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme

Hormone

hormoneshormonalprohormone
Protein kinase A itself is activated by the hormone adrenaline.