Glycogenin

GYG1glycogenin glucosyltransferaseGlycogenins
Glycogenin is an enzyme involved in converting glucose to glycogen.wikipedia
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Glycogen

glycogen depositsglycogen (n)glycogen deposits
Glycogenin is an enzyme involved in converting glucose to glycogen.
Due to the way glycogen is synthesised, every glycogen granule has at its core a glycogenin protein.

Glycogen synthase

GYS2glycogen(starch) synthaseGYS1
The main enzyme involved in glycogen polymerisation, glycogen synthase in the liver and in the muscle glycogen synthesis is initiated by UDP-Glucose, can only add to an existing chain of at least 3 glucose residues.
However, since glycogen synthase requires an oligosaccharide primer as a glucose acceptor, it relies on glycogenin to initiate de novo glycogen synthesis.

Glucose

dextroseD-glucose D -glucose
Glycogenin is an enzyme involved in converting glucose to glycogen. The main enzyme involved in glycogen polymerisation, glycogen synthase in the liver and in the muscle glycogen synthesis is initiated by UDP-Glucose, can only add to an existing chain of at least 3 glucose residues.

Primer (molecular biology)

primerprimersRNA primer
It acts as a primer, by polymerizing the first few glucose molecules, after which other enzymes take over. Glycogenin acts as the primer, to which further glucose monomers may be added.

Protein dimer

heterodimerdimerhomodimer
It is a homodimer of 37-kDa subunits and is classified as a glycosyltransferase.

Dalton (unit)

kDaDaDalton
It is a homodimer of 37-kDa subunits and is classified as a glycosyltransferase.

Glycosyltransferase

glycosyltransferasesGlycosyl transferaseADP-ribosyltransferases
It is a homodimer of 37-kDa subunits and is classified as a glycosyltransferase.

Catalysis

catalyzescatalysescatalyst
It catalyzes the chemical reaction: It achieves this by catalyzing the addition of glucose to itself (autocatalysis) by first binding glucose from UDP-glucose to the hydroxyl group of Tyr-194.

Substrate (chemistry)

substratessubstratesubstrate specificity
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP-alpha-D-glucose and glycogenin, whereas its two products are UDP and alpha-D-glucosylglycogenin.

Uridine diphosphate glucose

UDP-glucoseUDP-D-glucoseUDP
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP-alpha-D-glucose and glycogenin, whereas its two products are UDP and alpha-D-glucosylglycogenin. It achieves this by catalyzing the addition of glucose to itself (autocatalysis) by first binding glucose from UDP-glucose to the hydroxyl group of Tyr-194.

Product (chemistry)

productsproductchemical products
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP-alpha-D-glucose and glycogenin, whereas its two products are UDP and alpha-D-glucosylglycogenin.

Uridine diphosphate

UDPuridine diphosphate sugarsUridine diphosphate (UDP)
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP-alpha-D-glucose and glycogenin, whereas its two products are UDP and alpha-D-glucosylglycogenin.

Royal Society

FRSRoyal Society of LondonThe Royal Society
Glycogenin was discovered in 1984 by Dr. William J. Whelan, a fellow of the Royal Society of London and current professor of Biochemistry at the University of Miami.

University of Miami

MiamiMiami (FL)The University of Miami
Glycogenin was discovered in 1984 by Dr. William J. Whelan, a fellow of the Royal Society of London and current professor of Biochemistry at the University of Miami.

Polymerization

polymerisationpolymerizepolymerized
The main enzyme involved in glycogen polymerisation, glycogen synthase in the liver and in the muscle glycogen synthesis is initiated by UDP-Glucose, can only add to an existing chain of at least 3 glucose residues.

Monomer

monomersmonomeric-mer
Glycogenin acts as the primer, to which further glucose monomers may be added.

Hydroxy group

hydroxylhydroxyl grouphydroxy
It achieves this by catalyzing the addition of glucose to itself (autocatalysis) by first binding glucose from UDP-glucose to the hydroxyl group of Tyr-194.

Molecule

molecularmoleculesmolecular structure
Glycogenin remains covalently attached to the reducing end of the glycogen molecule.

Protein isoform

isoformsisoformglycoform
In humans, there are two isoforms of glycogenin — glycogenin-1, encoded by GYG1, and expressed in muscle; and glycogenin-2, encoded by GYG2,and expressed in the liver and cardiac muscle, but not skeletal muscle.

Glycogenin-1

Glycogenin is the initiator of the glycogen biosynthesis.

Actin-binding protein

ABP-120actin binding proteinsactin-binding