Glycoprotein

glycoproteinsmembrane glycoproteinproteinanti-glycoproteincarrier plasma glycoproteinglyco-proteinglycol-proteinglycopeptidesglycoporteinsglycoprotein (G)
Glycoproteins are proteins which contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.wikipedia
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Glycan

glycansN-linked GlycanN-linked glycans
Glycoproteins are proteins which contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
However, in practice the term glycan may also be used to refer to the carbohydrate portion of a glycoconjugate, such as a glycoprotein, glycolipid, or a proteoglycan, even if the carbohydrate is only an oligosaccharide.

Glycosylation

glycosylatedC-mannosylationglycosylate
This process is known as glycosylation.
The influence of glycosylation on the folding and stability of glycoprotein is twofold.

Oligosaccharide

oligosaccharidesoligo-complex carbohydrates
Glycoproteins are proteins which contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
Glycoproteins have distinct Oligosaccharide structures which have significant effects on many of their properties, affecting critical functions such as antigenicity, solubility, and resistance to proteases.

Post-translational modification

posttranslational modificationpost-translational modificationspost-translational
The carbohydrate is attached to the protein in a cotranslational or posttranslational modification.

O-linked glycosylation

O-glycosylationO''-linked glycosylationO-glycosylated
O-GalNAc sugars are common on membrane glycoproteins, where they help increase rigidity of the region close to the membrane so that the protein extends away from the surface.

Sialic acid

sialic acidssialylationsialylated
Sialic acids are found widely distributed in animal tissues and to a lesser extent in other organisms, ranging from fungi to yeasts and bacteria, mostly in glycoproteins and gangliosides (they occur at the end of sugar chains connected to the surfaces of cells and soluble proteins).

Miraculin

* Miraculin, is a glycoprotein extracted from Synsepalum dulcificum a berry which alters human tongue receptors to recognize sour foods as sweet.
Miraculin is a, a glycoprotein extracted from the fruit of Synsepalum dulcificum.

Antibody

antibodiesimmunoglobulinimmunoglobulins
Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily.

Zona pellucida

protective layer surrounding the egg cellzonazona pelucida
The zona pellucida (plural zonae pellucidae, also egg coat or pellucid zone) is a glycoprotein layer surrounding the plasma membrane of mammalian oocytes.

ABO blood group system

ABOABO blood groupABO blood groups
A famous example of this latter effect is the ABO blood group system.
The ABO antigen is also expressed on the von Willebrand factor (vWF) glycoprotein, which participates in hemostasis (control of bleeding).

Synsepalum dulcificum

Miracle fruitmiracle berriesSynsepalum glycydora
* Miraculin, is a glycoprotein extracted from Synsepalum dulcificum a berry which alters human tongue receptors to recognize sour foods as sweet.
It contains a glycoprotein molecule, with some trailing carbohydrate chains, called miraculin.

Envelope glycoprotein GP120

gp120hiv envelope protein gp120glycoprotein (gp) 120
Envelope glycoprotein GP120 (or gp120) is a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope.

Endoplasmic reticulum

rough endoplasmic reticulumERsmooth endoplasmic reticulum
In contrast, perturbation of glycan processing (enzymatic removal/addition of carbohydrate residues to the glycan), which occurs in both the endoplastic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, is dispensable for isolated cells (as evidence by survival with glycosides inhibitors) but can lead to human disease (congenital disorders of glycosylation) and can be lethal in animal models.
Secretory proteins, mostly glycoproteins, are moved across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

Follicle-stimulating hormone

FSHfollicle stimulating hormonefollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.

Amino acid

amino acidsresiduesresidue
Glycoproteins are proteins which contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
Some modifications can produce hydrophobic lipoproteins, or hydrophilic glycoproteins.

Erythropoietin

EPOrecombinant EPOerythropoetin
Erythropoietin (EPO), also known as haematopoietin or haemopoietin, is a glycoprotein cytokine secreted by the kidney in response to cellular hypoxia; it stimulates red blood cell production (erythropoiesis) in the bone marrow.

Hydroxyproline

4-hydroxyproline(2''S'', 4''R'')-4-hydroxyproline4-hydroxy-L-proline
Hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) are also found in plant cell walls.

Transferrin

TFserum transferrinapotransferrin
Transferrins are iron-binding blood plasma glycoproteins that control the level of free iron (Fe) in biological fluids.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

TSHthyroid stimulating hormonethyrotropin
It is a glycoprotein hormone produced by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland, which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid.

Human chorionic gonadotropin

hCGchorionic gonadotropinhuman chorionic gonadotrophin
Human chorionic gonadotropin is a glycoprotein composed of 237 amino acids with a molecular mass of 36.7 kDa, approximately 14.5 αhCG and 22.2kDa βhCG.

Galactose

galactose metabolismD-galactoseGal
It is also synthesized by the body, where it forms part of glycolipids and glycoproteins in several tissues; and is a by-product from the third-generation ethanol production process (from macroalgae).

Neuraminic acid

Aminononulosonic acidneuraminic acids
Neuraminic acid does not occur naturally, but many of its derivatives are found widely distributed in animal tissues and in bacteria, especially in glycoproteins and gangliosides.

Glucose

dextroseD-glucose D -glucose
Finally, glucose is used as a building block in the glycosylation of proteins to glycoproteins, glycolipids, peptidoglycans, glycosides and other substances (catalyzed by glycosyltransferases) and can be cleaved from them by glycosidases.

Hormone

hormoneshormonalprohormone
Other hormones, including steroid and thyroid hormones, are lipid-soluble; to achieve widespread distribution, these hormones must bond to carrier plasma glycoproteins (e.g., thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)) to form ligand-protein complexes.