Glycosyltransferase

glycosyltransferasesGlycosyl transferaseADP-ribosyltransferasestransglycolasetransglycosylase
Glycosyltransferases (GTFs, Gtfs) are enzymes (EC 2.4) that establish natural glycosidic linkages.wikipedia
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Nucleotide sugar

NDP-glucoseNucleotide sugarssugar nucleotide
They catalyze the transfer of saccharide moieties from an activated nucleotide sugar (also known as the "glycosyl donor") to a nucleophilic glycosyl acceptor molecule, the nucleophile of which can be oxygen- carbon-, nitrogen-, or sulfur-based.
Those reactions are catalyzed by a group of enzymes called glycosyltransferases.

Glycoside

glycosidescyanogenic glycosidescyanogenic glycoside
The result of glycosyl transfer can be a carbohydrate, glycoside, oligosaccharide, or a polysaccharide.
The most important cleavage enzymes are the glycoside hydrolases, and the most important synthetic enzymes in nature are glycosyltransferases.

Oligosaccharide

oligosaccharidesoligo-complex carbohydrates
The result of glycosyl transfer can be a carbohydrate, glycoside, oligosaccharide, or a polysaccharide.
Glycosylation sites in O-linked oligosaccharides are determined by the secondary and tertiary structures of the polypeptide, which dictate where glycosyltransferases will add sugars.

Uridine diphosphate glucose

UDP-glucoseUDP-D-glucoseUDP
Mammals use only 9 sugar nucleotide donors for glycosyltransferases: UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose, UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GalNAc, UDP-xylose, UDP-glucuronic acid, GDP-mannose, GDP-fucose, and CMP-sialic acid.
It is involved in glycosyltransferase reactions in metabolism.

Glycolipid

glycolipidsglyceroglycolipid
Transferases may also use lipids as an acceptor, forming glycolipids, and even use lipid-linked sugar phosphate donors, such as dolichol phosphates.
Enzymes called glycosyltransferases link the saccharide to the lipid molecule, and also play a role in assembling the correct oligosaccharide so that the right receptor can be activated on the cell which responds to the presence of the glycolipid on the surface of the cell.

Uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine

UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamineUDP-N-acetylglucosamineUDP-GlcNAc
Mammals use only 9 sugar nucleotide donors for glycosyltransferases: UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose, UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GalNAc, UDP-xylose, UDP-glucuronic acid, GDP-mannose, GDP-fucose, and CMP-sialic acid.
It is used by glycosyltransferases to transfer N-acetylglucosamine residues to substrates.

Guanosine diphosphate mannose

GDP-mannoseGDP-ManGDP-D-mannose
Mammals use only 9 sugar nucleotide donors for glycosyltransferases: UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose, UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GalNAc, UDP-xylose, UDP-glucuronic acid, GDP-mannose, GDP-fucose, and CMP-sialic acid.
Guanosine diphosphate mannose or GDP-mannose is a nucleotide sugar that is a substrate for glycosyltransferase reactions in metabolism.

Glycoside hydrolase

Glycoside hydrolasesglycosidaseglycosidases
In contrast to the diversity of 3D structures observed for glycoside hydrolases, glycosyltransferase have a much smaller range of structures.
Together with glycosyltransferases, glycosidases form the major catalytic machinery for the synthesis and breakage of glycosidic bonds.

Glucuronosyltransferase

UDP-glucuronosyltransferaseUDP-glucuronyltransferaseglucuronyl transferase
Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT) is a microsomal glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of the glucuronic acid component of UDP-glucuronic acid to a small hydrophobic molecule.

Glycogen synthase

GYS2glycogen(starch) synthaseGYS1
It is a glycosyltransferase that catalyses the reaction of UDP-glucose and (1,4-α -D-glucosyl) n to yield UDP and (1,4-α -D-glucosyl) n+1.

ABO blood group system

ABOABO blood groupABO blood groups
The ABO blood group system is determined by what type of glycosyltransferases are expressed in the body.
The gene encodes a glycosyltransferase—that is, an enzyme that modifies the carbohydrate content of the red blood cell antigens.

Glycosylation

glycosylatedC-mannosylationglycosylate
It is the presence or absence of glycosyltransferases which dictates which blood group antigens are presented and hence what antibody specificities are exhibited.

Glycorandomization

Glycosyltransferases have been widely used in the both targeted synthesis of specific glycoconjugates as well as the synthesis of differentially glycosylated libraries of drugs, biological probes or natural products in the context of drug discovery and drug development (a process known as glycorandomization).
The initial platform for chemoenzymatic glycorandomization was based upon a set of two highly permissive sugar activation enzymes (a sugar anomeric kinase and sugar-1-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase) to afford sugar nucleotide libraries as donors for these promiscuous glycosyltransferases where the permissivity of the corresponding sugar kinase and nucleotidyltransferase was expanded by enzyme engineering and directed evolution.

Enzyme

enzymologyenzymesenzymatic
Glycosyltransferases (GTFs, Gtfs) are enzymes (EC 2.4) that establish natural glycosidic linkages.

Enzyme Commission number

EC numberECEC numbers
Glycosyltransferases (GTFs, Gtfs) are enzymes (EC 2.4) that establish natural glycosidic linkages.

Catalysis

catalyzescatalysescatalyst
They catalyze the transfer of saccharide moieties from an activated nucleotide sugar (also known as the "glycosyl donor") to a nucleophilic glycosyl acceptor molecule, the nucleophile of which can be oxygen- carbon-, nitrogen-, or sulfur-based.

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
They catalyze the transfer of saccharide moieties from an activated nucleotide sugar (also known as the "glycosyl donor") to a nucleophilic glycosyl acceptor molecule, the nucleophile of which can be oxygen- carbon-, nitrogen-, or sulfur-based.

Moiety (chemistry)

moietymoietiesgroup
They catalyze the transfer of saccharide moieties from an activated nucleotide sugar (also known as the "glycosyl donor") to a nucleophilic glycosyl acceptor molecule, the nucleophile of which can be oxygen- carbon-, nitrogen-, or sulfur-based.

Glycosyl donor

glycosyl donors
They catalyze the transfer of saccharide moieties from an activated nucleotide sugar (also known as the "glycosyl donor") to a nucleophilic glycosyl acceptor molecule, the nucleophile of which can be oxygen- carbon-, nitrogen-, or sulfur-based.

Nucleophile

nucleophilicnucleophilic attacknucleophilicity
They catalyze the transfer of saccharide moieties from an activated nucleotide sugar (also known as the "glycosyl donor") to a nucleophilic glycosyl acceptor molecule, the nucleophile of which can be oxygen- carbon-, nitrogen-, or sulfur-based.

Glycosyl acceptor

They catalyze the transfer of saccharide moieties from an activated nucleotide sugar (also known as the "glycosyl donor") to a nucleophilic glycosyl acceptor molecule, the nucleophile of which can be oxygen- carbon-, nitrogen-, or sulfur-based.

Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygen
They catalyze the transfer of saccharide moieties from an activated nucleotide sugar (also known as the "glycosyl donor") to a nucleophilic glycosyl acceptor molecule, the nucleophile of which can be oxygen- carbon-, nitrogen-, or sulfur-based.

Carbon

Ccarbonaceouscarbon atom
They catalyze the transfer of saccharide moieties from an activated nucleotide sugar (also known as the "glycosyl donor") to a nucleophilic glycosyl acceptor molecule, the nucleophile of which can be oxygen- carbon-, nitrogen-, or sulfur-based.