Glyph

glyphscharactercharacterscharacter glyphsglyphicpainted glyphstypographic signtypographical symbol
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.wikipedia
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Tittle

dotdotless idiamond-dots
In most languages written in any variety of the Latin alphabet, the dot on a lower-case i is not a glyph because it does not convey any distinction, and an i in which the dot has been accidentally omitted is still likely to be recognized correctly.
The tittle is an integral part of the glyph of i and j, but diacritic dots can appear over other letters in various languages.

Diacritic

diacriticsdiacritical markdiacritical marks
However, in some cases, additional marks fulfill the role of diacritics, to differentiate distinct characters.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent – is a glyph added to a letter or basic glyph.

Dotted and dotless I

dotless iİdotless letter ''i
However, in Turkish it is a glyph because that language has two distinct versions of the letter i, with and without a dot.
In some fonts, if the lowercase letters fi are placed adjacently, the dot-like upper end of the f would fall inconveniently close to the dot of the i, and therefore a ligature glyph is provided with the top of the f extended to serve as the dot of the i.

Orthographic ligature

ligatureligaturestypographic ligature
They were originally ligatures, but over time have become characters in their own right; these languages treat them as separate letters.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.

Grapheme

graphemescharacterscharacter
However, a ligature such as "ſi", that is treated in some typefaces as a single unit, is arguably not a glyph as this is just a quirk of the typeface, essentially an allographic feature, and includes more than one grapheme.
By comparison, a specific shape that represents any particular grapheme in a specific typeface is called a glyph.

Allography

allographallographsallographic
However, a ligature such as "ſi", that is treated in some typefaces as a single unit, is arguably not a glyph as this is just a quirk of the typeface, essentially an allographic feature, and includes more than one grapheme.
The letter g, for example, has two common forms (glyphs) in different typefaces, and an enormous variety in people's handwriting.

Typeface

fonttypefacesfonts
Most typographic glyphs originate from the characters of a typeface.
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.

Cedilla

ĢĻŅ
In general, a diacritic is a glyph, even if it is contiguous with the rest of the character like a cedilla in French, the ogonek in several languages, or the stroke on a Polish "Ł".
Although their Adobe glyph names are commas, their names in the Unicode Standard are "g", "k", "l", "n", and "r" with a cedilla.

Hieroglyph

hieroglyphshieroglyphicAncient Egyptian Hieroglyphs
The word hieroglyph (Greek for sacred writing) has a longer history in English, dating from an early use in an English to Italian dictionary published by John Florio in 1598, referencing the complex and mysterious characters of the Egyptian alphabet.
Each picture/glyph served three functions: (1) to represent the image of a thing or action, (2) to stand for the sound of a syllable, and (3) to clarify the precise meaning of adjoining glyphs.

Font

fontsoptical sizeoptical sizes
In typography and computing, the range of graphemes is broader than in a written language in other ways too: a typographical font often has to cope with a range of different languages each of which contribute their own graphemes, and it may also be required to print other symbols such as dingbats.
Each font was a matched set of type, one piece (called a "sort") for each glyph, and a typeface consisting of a range of fonts that shared an overall design.

Writing system

scriptwriting systemsscripts
It may be a pictogram or ideogram, or part of a writing system such as a syllable, or a logogram. In computing as well as typography, the term "character" refers to a grapheme or grapheme-like unit of text, as found in natural language writing systems (scripts).
The terms glyph, sign and character are sometimes used to refer to a grapheme.

Dingbat

Dingbatspi fontprinter's ornament
In typography and computing, the range of graphemes is broader than in a written language in other ways too: a typographical font often has to cope with a range of different languages each of which contribute their own graphemes, and it may also be required to print other symbols such as dingbats.
Although fonts claiming Unicode coverage will contain glyphs for dingbats in addition to alphabetic characters, fonts that have dingbats in place of alphabetic characters continue to be popular, primarily for ease of input.

Character encoding

character setComputer encodingsencoding
Other writing systems, such as Arabic and Hebrew, are represented with more complex character repertoires due to the need to accommodate things like bidirectional text and glyphs that are joined together in different ways for different situations.

Character (computing)

charactercharacterstext
In computing as well as typography, the term "character" refers to a grapheme or grapheme-like unit of text, as found in natural language writing systems (scripts).
The term glyph is used to describe a particular visual appearance of a character.

Punchcutting

punchcutterpunchesCounterpunch (typography)
While this can be done with cutting tools, a counterpunch, a type of punch used in the cutting of other punches, was often used to create the negative space in or around a glyph.

Letterform

letterformsletter-forms
A letterform is a type of glyph, which is a specific, concrete way of writing an abstract character or grapheme.

Palaeography

Palaeographicallypaleographicallypaleography

Typography

typographertypographictypographical
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.

Writing

writtentextwrite
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.

Latin alphabet

LatinRoman alphabetRoman
In most languages written in any variety of the Latin alphabet, the dot on a lower-case i is not a glyph because it does not convey any distinction, and an i in which the dot has been accidentally omitted is still likely to be recognized correctly.

Syllabary

syllabicsyllabariessyllabic script
It may be a pictogram or ideogram, or part of a writing system such as a syllable, or a logogram. Also, in Japanese syllabaries, a number of the characters are made up of more than one separate mark, but in general these separate marks are not glyphs because they have no meaning by themselves.

Ogonek

ĮŲǪ
In general, a diacritic is a glyph, even if it is contiguous with the rest of the character like a cedilla in French, the ogonek in several languages, or the stroke on a Polish "Ł".

Ł

L with stroke
In general, a diacritic is a glyph, even if it is contiguous with the rest of the character like a cedilla in French, the ogonek in several languages, or the stroke on a Polish "Ł".

Æ

ashæscÆæ
Some characters such as "æ" in Icelandic and the "ß" in German may be regarded as glyphs.

Icelandic language

IcelandicModern IcelandicIceland
Some characters such as "æ" in Icelandic and the "ß" in German may be regarded as glyphs.