Glyphosate

RoundupglycosphateglyphosatesglysophateHerbicide-resistant cropsMonsanto RoundupRoundup herbicidesRoundUp ReadyRoundup weedkillersuperweeds
Glyphosate (IUPAC name: N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.wikipedia
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Phosphonate

phosphonic acidsphosphonatesphosphonic acid
It is an organophosphorus compound, specifically a phosphonate, which acts by inhibiting the plant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase. The original synthetic approach to glyphosate involved the reaction of phosphorus trichloride with formaldehyde followed by hydrolysis to yield a phosphonate.
Many commercially important compounds are phosphonates, including glyphosate (the active molecule of the herbicide "Roundup"), and ethephon, a widely used plant growth regulator.

Glyphosate-based herbicides

glyphosate formulationglyphosate-based herbicide
From the late 1970s to 2016, there was a 100-fold increase in the frequency and volume of application of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) worldwide, with further increases expected in the future, partly in response to the global emergence and spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds.
Glyphosate-based herbicides are usually made of a glyphosate salt that is combined with other ingredients that are needed to stabilize the herbicide formula and allow penetration into plants.

John E. Franz

It was discovered to be an herbicide by Monsanto chemist John E. Franz in 1970.
John E. Franz (born December 21, 1929) is an organic chemist who discovered the herbicide glyphosate while working at Monsanto Company in 1970.

Crop desiccation

crop desiccant
Glyphosate (IUPAC name: N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.
Herbicides used include glyphosate, diquat and glufosinate.

Roundup (herbicide)

Roundupround-upRoundup ready crops
Monsanto brought it to market for agricultural use in 1974 under the trade name Roundup. Monsanto's last commercially relevant United States patent expired in 2000.
Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the United States.

Herbicide

herbicidesherbicidalweed killer
Glyphosate (IUPAC name: N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.
Glyphosate (Roundup) was introduced in 1974 for nonselective weed control.

Organophosphorus compound

organophosphorusorganophosphorus chemistryorganophosphine
It is an organophosphorus compound, specifically a phosphonate, which acts by inhibiting the plant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase.
Phosphonates have many technical applications, a well-known member being glyphosate, better known as Roundup.

International Agency for Research on Cancer

IARCInternational Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Group 4
In March 2015, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer classified glyphosate as "probably carcinogenic in humans" (category 2A) based on epidemiological studies, animal studies, and in vitro studies.
On 20 March 2015, IARC announced it evaluated the hazard of the herbicide glyphosate to be "probably carcinogenic to humans".

Genetically modified crops

genetically modifiedtransgenic cropsgenetically modified crop
Farmers quickly adopted glyphosate for agricultural weed control, especially after Monsanto introduced glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready crops, enabling farmers to kill weeds without killing their crops.
In 1995 canola with modified oil composition (Calgene), Bt maize (Ciba-Geigy), bromoxynil-tolerant cotton (Calgene), Bt cotton (Monsanto), glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (Monsanto), virus-tolerant squash (Asgrow), and additional delayed ripening tomatoes (DNAP, Zeneca/Peto and Monsanto) were approved.

Genetically modified soybean

soybeanRoundup Ready soybeanglyphosate-resistant soybean
An increasing number of crops have been genetically engineered to be tolerant of glyphosate (e.g. Roundup Ready soybean, the first Roundup Ready crop, also created by Monsanto), which allows farmers to use glyphosate as a post-emergence herbicide against weeds.
Roundup Ready soybeans (The first variety was also known as GTS 40-3-2 (OECD UI: MON-04032-6)) are a series of genetically engineered varieties of glyphosate-resistant soybeans produced by Monsanto.

National Medal of Technology and Innovation

National Medal of TechnologyNational Medals of TechnologyTechnology
Franz received the National Medal of Technology of the United States in 1987 and the Perkin Medal for Applied Chemistry in 1990 for his discoveries.

Monsanto

Monsanto CompanyCalgeneGenuity
It was discovered to be an herbicide by Monsanto chemist John E. Franz in 1970. Monsanto chemists had synthesized about 100 derivatives of aminomethylphosphonic acid as potential water-softening agents. Key manufacturers include Anhui Huaxing Chemical Industry Company, BASF, Bayer CropScience, Dow AgroSciences, DuPont, Jiangsu Good Harvest-Weien Agrochemical Company, Monsanto, Nantong Jiangshan Agrochemical & Chemicals Co., Nufarm Limited, SinoHarvest, Syngenta, and Zhejiang Xinan Chemical Industrial Group Company.
Monsanto developed Roundup, a glyphosate-based herbicide, in the 1970s, and became a major producer of genetically engineered crops.

Polyethoxylated tallow amine

POEAPOEAstallow amine
As of April 2017, the Canadian government stated that glyphosate was "the most widely used herbicide in Canada", at which date the product labels were revised to ensure a limit of 20% POEA by weight.
They are used primarily as emulsifiers and wetting agents for agrochemical formulations, such as pesticides and herbicides (e.g. glyphosate).

Aminomethylphosphonic acid

Monsanto chemists had synthesized about 100 derivatives of aminomethylphosphonic acid as potential water-softening agents.
It is one of the primary degradation products of the herbicide glyphosate.

Phosphorus trichloride

PCl 3 phosphorus chloride
The original synthetic approach to glyphosate involved the reaction of phosphorus trichloride with formaldehyde followed by hydrolysis to yield a phosphonate.
The large volume herbicide glyphosate is also produced this way.

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

2,4-D2, 4-D2,4D
In 2007, glyphosate was the most used herbicide in the United States' agricultural sector and the second-most used (after 2,4-D) in home and garden, government and industry, and commercial applications.
Dow intended it to be used as an alternative or complement to Roundup Ready crops due to the increasing prevalence of glyphosate-resistant weeds.

Chloroacetic acid

monochloroacetic acidchloroacetatesodium chloroacetate
Iminodiacetic acid is usually prepared on-site, such as by reaction of chloroacetic acid with ammonia and calcium hydroxide to produce the calcium iminodiacetate salt and then acidification of the product.
It is the precursor to the herbicide glyphosate, and the herbicides MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) and dimethoate are prepared by alkylation with chloroacetic acid.

EPSP synthase

5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate
It is an organophosphorus compound, specifically a phosphonate, which acts by inhibiting the plant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase.
It is the biological target of the herbicide glyphosate, and a glyphosate-resistant version of this gene has been used in genetically modified crops.

Coca eradication

spraying illegal cropseradicate cocaeradication of coca
Since 1994, glyphosate has been used in aerial spraying in Colombia in coca eradication programs; Colombia announced in May 2015 that by October, it would cease using glyphosate in these programs due to concerns about human toxicity of the chemical.
Plots denuded of coca plants by mechanical means (burning or cutting) or chemical herbicides, such as glyphosate, are abandoned and cause serious problems with erosion in seasonal rains.

Glycine

GlyGglycinate
Glyphosate is an aminophosphonic analogue of the natural amino acid glycine, and like all amino acids, exists in different ionic states depending on pH.
It is used in the manufacture of the herbicide glyphosate.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
In March 2015, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer classified glyphosate as "probably carcinogenic in humans" (category 2A) based on epidemiological studies, animal studies, and in vitro studies.
Controversies have erupted multiple times when the IARC has classified many things as Class 2a (probable carcinogens), including cell phone signals, glyphosate, drinking hot beverages, and working as a barber.

Canola oil

canolacanola (rapeseed)canola (rapeseed) oil
Current glyphosate-resistant crops include soy, maize (corn), canola, alfalfa, sugar beets, and cotton, with wheat still under development.
There are several forms of genetic modification, such as herbicide (glyphosate and glufosinate, for example) tolerance and different qualities in canola oil.

Iminodiacetic acid

iminodiacetate anionaminodiacetic acidiminodiacetate
The first is to react iminodiacetic acid with phosphorous acid and hydrochloric acid (sometimes formed in situ by addition of phosphorus trichloride) via a modified Mannich reaction.
Iminodiacetic acid is an important intermediate in one of the two main industrial processes used to manufacture the herbicide glyphosate.

Maize

corncorn (maize)Zea mays
Current glyphosate-resistant crops include soy, maize (corn), canola, alfalfa, sugar beets, and cotton, with wheat still under development.
Often the varieties have been genetically modified to tolerate glyphosate or to provide protection against natural pests.

DuPont

E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Companydu PontDuPont Company
Key manufacturers include Anhui Huaxing Chemical Industry Company, BASF, Bayer CropScience, Dow AgroSciences, DuPont, Jiangsu Good Harvest-Weien Agrochemical Company, Monsanto, Nantong Jiangshan Agrochemical & Chemicals Co., Nufarm Limited, SinoHarvest, Syngenta, and Zhejiang Xinan Chemical Industrial Group Company.
Genes engineered into their products include LibertyLink, which provides resistance to Bayer's Ignite Herbicide/Liberty herbicides; the Herculex I Insect Protection gene, which provides protection against various insects; the Herculex RW insect protection trait, which provides protection against other insects; the YieldGard Corn Borer gene, which provides resistance to another set of insects; and the Roundup Ready Corn 2 trait that provides crop resistance against glyphosate herbicides.