Medieval seal of Gniezno
King Władysław IV Vasa confirms the old privileges of Gniezno, 1635
19th-century painting of Gniezno
Memorial at the site of a German execution of 24 Poles in November 1939 in the Dalki district
Gniezno during the visit of Pope John Paul II in 1979
View of Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Adalbert. On the right side - church under the invocation of St. John the Baptist
Panorama of Gniezno. 19th century
Gniezno Old Town
Aleksander Fredro Theatre in Gniezno
Regional court
Gniezno Doors in the Cathedral
Coffin of Adalbert of Prague in the Cathedral
Market Square (Rynek)
Holy Trinity church
Franciscan church
Gothic Saint John the Baptist church in winter
Saint Lawrence church
Monument of King Bolesław I the Brave with the Cathedral in the background
Museum of the Polish State Origins
Museum of Archdiocese in Gniezno
Episcopal palace of Primates of Poland
Saint George's Church

City in central-western Poland, about 50 km east of Poznań, with 68,943 inhabitants making it the sixth-largest city in the Greater Poland Voivodeship.

- Gniezno

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Piast dynasty

The first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.

Deeds of the Princes of the Poles
Lands held by the Piast dynasty (992–1025), with a shaded area corresponding to the territory of present-day Poland
Denar Princes Polonie, 11th century (in the times of Bolesław I the Brave), one of the most recognizable coins in the history of Polish coinage.
Silesian Piasts Coat of Arms

Shortly afterwards they relocated their residence to Gniezno, where Prince Mieszko I ruled over the Civitas Schinesghe from about 960.


Town of 13,786 inhabitants in central Poland.

The First Sejm in Łęczyca, by Jan Matejko
Baroque Church of the Immaculate Conception of Mary
Park Miejski (Municipal Park)

In the early 12th century, Gallus Anonymus called Łęczyca "Lucic", and in 1154, Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi named it Nugrada, placing it among other main towns of the Kingdom of Poland, such as Kraków, Sieradz, Gniezno, Wrocław and Santok.

Bolesław I the Brave

Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025.

Poland and parts of Pomerania temporarily conquered at the beginning of Bolesław's reign
Bolesław I the Brave buys the corpse of Saint Adalbert of Prague from the Prussians, Gniezno Doors c. 1170
Bolesław's replica of the Holy Lance, Wawel Hill, Cracow
Poland during the reign of Bolesław the Brave
Bolesław's denarius with the inscription Princes Polonie.
King Henry in a sacramentary c. 1002–1014
Bolesław at Kiev, in a legendary moment of hitting the Golden Gate with the Szczerbiec sword. Painting by Jan Matejko.
Coronation of the First King, as imagined by Jan Matejko
10-złotych coin with Bolesław Chrobry (1925)
Monument to Bolesław the Brave in Gniezno, created by Marcin Rożek in 1925. Destroyed in 1939 and reconstructed in 1985 by Jerzy Sobociński.

This perhaps happened most clearly during the Congress of Gniezno (11 March 1000), which resulted in the establishment of a Polish church structure with a Metropolitan See at Gniezno.


City on the River Warta in west-central Poland, within the Greater Poland region.

14th-century seal showing Poznań's coat of arms
Monument of Mieszko I and Boleslaus I the Brave, Golden Chapel at the Poznań Cathedral
Poznań Cathedral (center) and the smaller Church of Holy Virgin Mary to its right, standing on the site of the original ducal residence
Royal Castle after its total reconstruction
Poznań, c. undefined 1617, view from the north
Interior details in the Parish Church, or simply Fara, built in 1651–1701. One of the most stunning and best preserved examples of baroque architecture in Poland
Raczyński Library (1828) at Liberty Square in 2016
Old Market Square in 1934. The Odwach guardhouse and the 1893's New Town Hall, which was not rebuilt after World War II
The skyline of Poznań, as seen from the east bank of the Warta river
Malta lake, the Mound of Freedom and artificial ski slope Malta-ski
Administrative division into 42 osiedla auxiliary units since 2011
The pre-1990 city division into main districts dzielnica, which are still retained for some administrative purposes
Bałtyk office building
A view of Stary Browar, Poznań Financial Centre, and Andersia Tower from the Collegium Altum of the University of Economics
Historical Herbrand B3/H0 horse-drawn tram used in Poznań between 1880 and 1898
The Renaissance Town Hall from 1560 served as the seat of local government until 1939 and now houses a museum
Grand Theatre behind Adama Mickiewicza Park
St. Martin's croissant
Collegium Minus of the Adam Mickiewicz University
AMU's Faculty of Political Science and Journalism at the Campus Morasko
Faculty of Chemical Technologies – Poznań University of Technology
Academy of Music
Municipal Stadium
Hala Arena before planned modernization
Poznań Główny – main railway station
Greater Poland Railways train at the Poznań Główny
A2 motorway before the six-lane expansion done in 2019
Moderus Gamma tram, which is produced near Poznań, in city's eastern underground section
City Bike's station
Solaris bus; they are also produced near Poznań
Eurocopter EC135 Lifeguard 9 waiting for an emergency dispatch at the Ławica Airport
Freedom Square (Plac Wolności)
Imperial Castle, now the Zamek Culture Centre
Merchant houses, originally 16th century's herring stalls, at the Old Market Square
Bamberka fountain at the Old Market Square
Śródka's Tale Mural in 2015
Stary Browar, Kufel by Wojciech Kujawski (Guinness ratified largest beer mug in the world), and Art Stations Foundation gallery in the background
Poznań Goat mascot, Old Market Square
Rogalin's Raczyński Palace within Rogalin Landscape Park, some 8 mi south of Poznań. Rear view

The Congress of Gniezno in 1000 led to the country's first permanent archbishopric being established in Gniezno (which is generally regarded as Poland's capital in that period), although Poznań continued to have independent bishops of its own.

Coat of arms of Poland

White, crowned eagle with a golden beak and talons, on a red background.

John III Sobieski's coat of arms crowning the Royal Chapel in Gdańsk
Chrobry denarius with a heraldic bird, about 1000 AD
Tapestry with the coats of arms of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, ca. 1555
A silver heraldic base for King John Casimir's crown, ca. 1666
King of Poland in tournamental attire
Coat of arms of Poland (official since 1927) in Paris during the World Expo in 1937
Jadwiga of Poland
Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila)
Władysław III of Poland
Casimir IV Jagiellon
John I Albert
Alexander Jagiellon
Sigismund II Augustus
Template of the white eagle in the coat of arms of Poland (1919-1927)<ref>{{cite web|title=Ustawa z dnia 1 sierpnia 1919 r. o godłach i barwach Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej. Dz.U. 1919 nr 69 poz. 416|url=}}.</ref>
Coat of arms of Republic of Central Lithuania (1920–1922)
Official Polish coat of arms (1919-1927) according to the law.
Zygmunt Kamiński`s original proposed design (1927).
Modernist eagle from a rare coin (1925).
Official Polish coat of arms since 1927 according to the law.
Official Polish coat of arms since 1927 according to the law, exposed by president during a steamboat cruise. Visible knight's shield, Modern French type without ordinary grey oval plate which is rare.
Polish coat of arms (unofficial) in Art Deco style, on the facade of the Ministry of Transport in Warsaw (architect Rudolf Świerczyński 1931).
Polish coat of arms (unofficial) in Art Deco style, on the facade of the post office in Warsaw (architect Julian Puterman-Sadłowski 1934).
Polish coat of arms in the full-rigged sailing ship from Gdynia called "Dar Pomorza" (English: Gift of Pomerania), 1938.
Coat of arms of Poland during the Warsaw Uprising, 1944.
Coat of arms of the Polish People's Republic (1944-1989) according to the law.
Same coat of arms with black outlines
Coat of arms of the Republic of Poland according to the law Dz.U. z 2005 r. Nr 235, poz. 2000
Presidential standard
The eagle used by governmental institutions and on Polish passports
The logo of the Senate
The Coat of arms on a Polish passport (2006)
The Coat of arms of Poland in the Supreme Court of Poland in Warsaw (by architect Marek Budzyński 1992). It's a knight's shield, Modern French type in heraldry. The knight's shields without ordinary grey oval plates are rare on facades. This type of shield, without grey oval plate resembling the coat of arms in the Polish parliament in Warsaw.
The Coat of arms of Poland in Zagreb. The grey oval plate made of metal sheet is visible. The grey oval plates are popular in schools and embassies on facades, but ovals are considered as ordinary.
Polish Land Forces
Polish Air Force
Polish Navy
Polish Special Forces
Territorial Defence Force

He also named the place Gniezdno (currently Gniezno) from the Polish word gniazdo ("nest").

Greater Poland

Historical region of west-central Poland.

A map of Greater Poland/Great Poland during Piast period from the Codex diplomaticus Maioris Poloniae, based on data from historical documents
A map of Polish dialects. The area where Greater Poland's dialect is spoken is marked in violet.
Poznań Town Hall
Palace of the Raczyński family in Rogalin, within the Rogalin Landscape Park
Gniezno cathedral
Kalisz Town Hall
Leszno town hall
Marian sanctuary in Licheń near Konin

Other cities are Kalisz to the south-east, Konin to the east, Piła to the north, Ostrów Wielkopolski to the south-east, Gniezno (the earliest capital of Poland) to the north-east, and Leszno to the south-west.


Town in central Poland and is situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (since 1999), previously in Bydgoszcz Voivodeship (1975–1998).

Ruins of the medieval castle
The Gospel Book of Kruszwica (ca.1160) is considered among the most precious mediaeval manuscripts in Poland.

It soon gave place to that of Gniezno or Knezno, further west, which by its very name indicates that it was the residence of a Knez, or prince or duke.

Adalbert of Prague

Bohemian missionary and Christian saint.

Monument to Adalbert and his brother Gaudentius, Libice nad Cidlinou, Czech Republic.
Adalbert on a seal of the chapter of Gniezno Cathedral (Gnesen)
Poland, Bohemia and Prussia during the reign of Bolesław the Brave.
The execution of Saint Adalbert by the pagan Prussians, Gniezno Doors.
Silver coffin of Adalbert, Cathedral in Gniezno
Canonical cross of Saint Adalbert by Giennadij Jerszow. Collegiate Capitol in Gdańsk. Silver-Gold 2011
Statue of Saint Adalbert at Prague

Then he went to Poland where he was cordially welcomed by then-Duke Boleslaus I and installed as Bishop of Gniezno.

Gord (archaeology)

Medieval Slavonic fortified settlement usually build on strategic sites such as hilltops, riverbanks, lake islets or peninsulas between the 6th–12th centuries CE in Central and Eastern Europe.

Section of a reconstructed hilltop gród at the village of Birów near Ogrodzieniec, Poland
Reconstructed West Slavic fortified settlement (gord) in Groß Raden, Germany
Towns and villages in Poland with names derived from gród (magenta circles)
Depiction of the gród in Milicz, Poland
A cross section of early Slavic gród bulwarks and wharf in Gdańsk, Poland


Royal city in Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Urban settlement within the crown lands (królewszczyzna).

Medal commemorating the Law on the Cities
Warsaw in the 18th century
Gdańsk in the 16th century
Poznań in the 17th century
Elbląg in the 18th century
Toruń in the 17th century
Kraków, Kleparz and Kazimierz in the 17th century - agglomeration of three royal cities
Lviv in the 17th century
Lublin in the 17th century
Kamianets-Podilskyi in the 17th century
Przemyśl in the 17th century
Sandomierz in the 17th century
Chełm in the 18th century
Biecz in the 17th century
Lutsk in the 18th century
Vilnius in the 17th century
Grodno in the 16th century
Kaunas in the 17th century
Brest in the 17th century
Mogilev in the 18th century
Trakai in the 17th century
Wawel Castle, Kraków (World Heritage Site)
Royal Castle, Warsaw (World Heritage Site)
Royal Castle, Lublin
Royal Castle, Sandomierz
Royal Castle, Łęczyca
Royal Castle, Będzin
Royal Castle, Sanok
Royal Castle, Poznań
Royal Castle, Tykocin
Remainings of the Royal Castle, Nowy Sącz
Remainings of the Royal Castle, Olsztyn
Remainings of the Royal Castle, Kremenets
Royal Castle, Piotrków Trybunalski
Old Grodno Castle
Green Gate, Gdańsk
Kraków Old Town (World Heritage Site)
Warsaw Old Town (World Heritage Site)
Medieval Town of Toruń (World Heritage Site)
Vilnius Old Town (World Heritage Site)
Lviv Old Town (World Heritage Site)
Poznań Old Town
Gdańsk Main City
Lublin Old Town
Bydgoszcz Old Town
Sandomierz Old Town

Other important royal cities included Gniezno (ecclesiastical capital of Poland and former capital of early medieval Poland), Płock (former capital of medieval Poland), Grodno (general sejm location alongside Warsaw), Bydgoszcz and Piotrków (Crown Tribunal locations alongside Lublin).