Gojong of Goryeo

The twenty-third ruler of Goryeo in present-day Korea from 1213–1259.

- Gojong of Goryeo

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Mongol invasions of Korea

A series of campaigns were conducted between 1231 and 1270 by the Mongol Empire against the Goryeo dynasty of Korea.

1235 Mongol invasion of Goryeo
Mail shirt with attached metal plates, Goryeo, 14th c.
The capital of Goryeo was moved to Ganghwado for the duration of the Mongol Invasions. The new capital was strongly fortified and was never conquered by the Mongols.

Gojong of Goryeo (reigned 1213–1259) was the 23rd king of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea.

Tripitaka Koreana

The Tripiṭaka Koreana (lit.

The Tripiṭaka Koreana in storage at Haeinsa
Tripiṭaka Koreana sutra page in 1371
Tripitaka storage
Copy of a Tripiṭaka Koreana woodblock at Haeinsa complex grounds used to allow visitors to make an inked print of the Heart Sutra while at the temple. See: for [[:File:Prajnyaapaaramitaa Hridaya.png|image of woodblock print.]]

To once again implore divine assistance with combating the Mongol threat, King Gojong thereafter ordered the revision and re-creation of the Tripiṭaka; the carving began in 1237 and was completed in 12 years, with support from Choe U and his son Choe Hang, and involving monks from both the Seon and Gyo schools.

Mongol Empire

The largest contiguous land empire in history.

Expansion of the Mongol Empire 1206–1294
superimposed on a modern political map of Eurasia
Mongolian tribes during the Khitan Liao dynasty (907–1125)
The Old World on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. 1200
Genghis Khan, National Palace Museum in Taipei, Taiwan
Genghis Khan ascended the throne in the Ikh Khuraldai region in the Onan river, from the Jami' al-tawarikh.
Mongol Empire circa 1207
Coronation of Ögedei Khan in 1229 as the successor of Genghis Khan. By Rashid al-Din, early 14th century.
The sack of Suzdal by Batu Khan in 1238, miniature from a 16th-century chronicle
The battle of Liegnitz, 1241. From a medieval manuscript of the Hedwig legend.
Batu Khan consolidates the Golden Horde
Güyük Khan demanding Pope Innocent IV's submission. The 1246 letter was written in Persian.
A Stone Turtle at the site of the Mongol capital, Karakorum.
Hulagu, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Il-Khanate. From a medieval Persian manuscript.
Mongol invasion of Baghdad
Fall of Baghdad, 1258
The extent of the Mongol Empire after the death of Möngke Khan (reigned 1251–1259).
The Mongols at war
Kublai Khan, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Yuan dynasty
The samurai Suenaga facing Mongol's bomb and Goryeo's arrows. Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.
defeating the Mongolian invasion army (left) Samurai Mitsui Sukenaga (right)
Samurai Shiraishi clan
Mongol warrior on horseback, preparing a mounted archery shot.
The funeral of Chagatai Khan.
Mongol rider, Yuan dynasty
A European depiction of the four khans, Temür (Yuan), Chapar (House of Ögedei), Toqta (Golden Horde), and Öljaitü (Ilkhanate), in the Fleur des histoires d'orient.
Hungarian King Béla IV in flight from the Mongols under general Kadan of the Golden Horde.
The successor states of the Mongol Empire in 1335: the Ilkhanate, Golden Horde, Yuan dynasty and Chagatai Khanate
Iron helmet, Mongol Empire
The Battle of Blue Waters in 1362, in which Lithuania successfully pushed the Golden Horde from the Principality of Kiev.
Crimean Tatar khan, Mengli Giray.
Reconstruction of a Mongol warrior
Mongol general Subutai of the Golden Horde
The executed – the long and full beard probably means he is not a Mongol – has been thrown off a cliff.
Persian miniature depicting Ghazan's conversion from Buddhism to Islam.
A 1363 astronomical handbook with Middle Mongolian glosses. Known as the Sanjufini Zij.
Mongols look on as Persian astronomers work. Early 14th century illustration in the Compendium of Chronicles.
A 1305 letter (on a scroll measuring 302 by) from the Ilkhan Mongol Öljaitü to King Philip IV of France.
Tuda Mengu of the Golden Horde.
Gold dinar of Genghis Khan, struck at the Ghazna (Ghazni) mint, dated 1221/2
Map showing the boundary of 13th century Mongol Empire compared to today's Mongols in Mongolia, Russia, the Central Asian States, and China
Tokhtamysh and the armies of the Golden Horde initiate the Siege of Moscow (1382).
Dominican martyrs killed by Mongols during the Mongol invasion of Poland in 1260.

Gojong, the king of Goryeo, surrendered but later revolted and massacred Mongol darughachis (overseers); he then moved his imperial court from Gaeseong to Ganghwa Island.

Goryeo

Korean kingdom founded in 918, during a time of national division called the Later Three Kingdoms period, that unified and ruled the Korean Peninsula until 1392.

Map of Goryeo in 1389
Goryeo's conquest of Silla and Baekje
Bronze statue of Taejo, c. undefined 951
Rafter finial in the shape of a dragon's head and wind chime, c. undefined 10th century
The Cheolli Jangseong (blue), a wall built by Goryeo in the aftermath of the Goryeo-Khitan War
The engraving of the original Tripitaka Koreana was begun in 1011 during the Khitan invasions to draw strength from the Buddha in defense of the kingdom.
The early 12th century was the height of the Korean celadon tradition and saw the full development of the indigenous "sanggam" technique of inlaid celadon.
General Yun Gwan (1040–1111) and his army.
Gyeongcheonsa Pagoda is a 10-story high marble pagoda made in 1348 that now sits in the National Museum of Korea.
King Gongmin (1330–1374) and Queen Noguk.
Yi Je-hyun (1287–1367), a civil bureaucrat and early Neo-Confucian scholar in Goryeo Dynasty.
Yeom Je-sin (1304–1382) was the main political opponent of the monk, Shin Don, who was in power.
Illustration of the Amitayurdhyana Sutra, c. undefined 13th century. A palace exemplifying the architecture of Goryeo is depicted.
General Gang Gam-chan was best known for his military victories during the Third conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War.
A Goryeo painting which depicts the Goryeo nobility.
Ksitigarbha painting, Goryeo Korea
Illustration of Maitreyavyakarana sutra (彌勒下生經變相圖)
Gwangyeongseopum Byeonsangdo, Goryeo buddhist painting.
Illustrated manuscript of the Lotus Sutra, c. undefined 1340
Kangnido reflects the geographic knowledge of China during the Mongol Empire when geographical information about Western countries became available via Islamic geographers.
Celadon incense burner. National Treasures of South Korea.
Ewer with Cover, first half of the 12th century. Stoneware with underglaze slip decoration and celadon glaze. Celadon ceramics of the Goryeo dynasty (918–1392) are among the most celebrated works of Korean art. Their luminous green color is the result of iron in both the clay and the glaze oxidizing in a reduction kiln. Brooklyn Museum
A Korean stoneware cosmetic box with white and black inlay and a celadon glaze, from the Goryeo Dynasty, dated c. 1150–1250
Jikji, Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters, the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris.

Then, Choe found the pliable King Gojong instead.

Age of Warriors

South Korean historical television series.

Yongin MBC Daejanggeum Park, where many sageuk television series are shot

Oh Hyun-chul as King Gojong (Crown Prince Wang Cheol), 23rd monarch

God of War (TV series)

2012 South Korean television series starring Kim Joo-hyuk as the real-life historical figure Kim Jun who was written about in the Goryeosa.

Promotional poster

During the Mongol invasions of Korea, Kim Jun rises in the ranks to become the top military official, and eventually rules the Goryeo empire for 60 years in place of its king.

Jeju Province

One of the nine provinces of South Korea.

Dol hareubang
Jeju World Cup Stadium.
Jeonbokjuk, abalone porridge
Jeju Stone Statue Park Statue.
Rapeseed fields in Jeju Island
Cheonjiyeon Waterfall in Jeju
Sangumburi volcanic crater

During the reign of Gojong of Goryeo, Tamna was renamed "Jeju", which means "province across the sea".

Möngke Khan

The fourth khagan-emperor of the Mongol Empire, ruling from 1 July 1251, to 11 August 1259.

Battle of Mohi (on 11 April 1241), in which Möngke might have participated.
Möngke qaγan in traditional Mongolian script
The Mongol Empire during the reign of Möngke Khan (r.1251–59)
"Struck by the Georgian King David in the name of his overlord Möngke, by the power of Heaven" (Persian, dated 1253)
Hethum I (seated) in the Mongol court of Karakorum, "receiving the homage of the Mongols". "Histoire des Tartars", Hayton of Corycus, 1307.
Audience with Möngke Khagan. Tarikh-i Jahangushay-i Juvaini
Mongol invasion of Vietnam in 1257
Hulagu imprisons the Caliph Al-Musta'sim among his treasures to starve him to death ("Le livre des merveilles", 15th century).
Mongols sacked Syrian cities in 1259–1260 and advanced to the Egyptian border.
Silver Tree fountain in front of Tumen Amugulang Palace, 18th-century European imagination
The Model of the Khan Palace in Karakorum in the National History Museum of Mongolia in Ulaan-Baatar

He also demanded that King Gojong submit before him in person and to move his headquarters from Ganghwa Island to the mainland of Korea.

Güyük Khan

Güyük (or Kuyuk; Гүюг хаан, güyüg qaγan; ) (c.

The Mongols outside Vladimir presumably demanding submission before its sack.
Letter (1246) in Persian in which Güyük Khan demands Pope Innocent IV's submission.
Güyük interrogates Djamâl al-Dîn Mahmûd Hudjandî. Tarikh-i Jahangushay-i Juvaini.
Güyük at the feast. Tarikh-i Jahangushay-i Juvaini.

After the king Gojong of Goryeo refused to move his capital from Ganghwa Island to Songdo, Amuqan's force pillaged the Korean Peninsula until 1250.

Gijeok

List of all the kisaeng working in a particular district.

A girl of Joseon, in 1910

They first appear in historical records in the reign of King Gojong in the 13th century.