Goldberg Variations

14 canons on the First Eight Notes of Goldberg Variations GroundGoldberg Variations, BWV 988Goldbergthe Goldberg Variations14 Canons on the first eight notes of the Goldberg groundAria mit 30 VeränderungenBWV 988Canons on the Goldberg ground, BWV 1087eponymous musicfourteen canons, BWV 1087
The Goldberg Variations, BWV 988, are a work written for harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach, consisting of an aria and a set of 30 variations.wikipedia
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Johann Sebastian Bach

BachJ.S. BachJ. S. Bach
The Goldberg Variations, BWV 988, are a work written for harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach, consisting of an aria and a set of 30 variations.
He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Brandenburg Concertos and the Goldberg Variations as well as for vocal music such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor.

Johann Gottlieb Goldberg

Goldberg
They are named after Johann Gottlieb Goldberg, who may have been the first performer.
He is best known for lending his name, as the probable original performer, to the renowned Goldberg Variations of J.S. Bach.

Italian Concerto (Bach)

Italian ConcertoItalian Concerto'', BWV 971BWV 971
Klavierübung part 1 was the six partitas, part 2 the Italian Concerto and French Overture, and part 3 a series of chorale preludes for organ framed by a prelude and fugue in E major.
In fact, along with the French Overture and some of the Goldberg Variations, this is one of the few works by Bach which specifically require a 2-manual harpsichord.

Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis

BWVBach Werke Verzeichnis: Kleine Ausgabe, nach der von Wolfgang Schmieder vorgelegten 2. AusgabeBWV 1052
The Goldberg Variations, BWV 988, are a work written for harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach, consisting of an aria and a set of 30 variations.
BWV 988 – Goldberg Variations (published as [[List of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach printed during his lifetime#Fourth Clavier-Übung|Fourth Clavier-Übung]])

Quodlibet

simultaneous quodlibet
The final variation, instead of being the expected canon in the tenth, is a quodlibet, discussed below.
The last (thirtieth) variation of Bach's Goldberg Variations is a quodlibet.

Harpsichord

cembaloharpsichordsclavecin
The Goldberg Variations, BWV 988, are a work written for harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach, consisting of an aria and a set of 30 variations.
Perhaps the most celebrated composers who wrote for the harpsichord were Georg Friedrich Händel (1685–1759), who composed numerous suites for harpsichord, and especially J. S. Bach (1685–1750), whose solo works (for instance, the Well-Tempered Clavier and the Goldberg Variations), continue to be performed very widely, often on the piano.

Notebook for Anna Magdalena Bach

1722 Notebook for Anna Magdalena BachClavier-Book for Anna MagdalenaNotebooks for Anna Magdalena Bach
A handwritten copy of just the aria is found in the 1725 Notebook for Anna Magdalena Bach.
6) Keyboard aria in G major, BWV 988/1. Another well-known piece, this is the aria of the Goldberg Variations, BWV 988. Christoph Wolff has suggested that this Aria was entered into the two blank pages of this book by Anna Magdalena later, in 1740.

Variation (music)

variationsvariationtheme and variations
The Goldberg Variations, BWV 988, are a work written for harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach, consisting of an aria and a set of 30 variations.
Two famous variation sets from the Baroque era, both originally written for harpsichord, are George Frideric Handel's The Harmonious Blacksmith set, and Johann Sebastian Bach's Goldberg Variations, BWV 988.

Sarabande

sarabandSarabandazarabanda
The aria is a sarabande in time, and features a heavily ornamented melody:
J.S. Bach sometimes gave the sarabande a privileged place in his music, even outside the context of dance suites; in particular, the theme and climactic 25th variation from his Goldberg Variations are both sarabandes.

Aria

ariasariettearietta
The Goldberg Variations, BWV 988, are a work written for harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach, consisting of an aria and a set of 30 variations. The variations found just after each canon are genre pieces of various types, among them three Baroque dances (4, 7, 19); a fughetta (10); a French overture (16); two ornate arias for the right hand (13, 25); and others (22, 28).
For example, J. S. Bach's so-called "Goldberg Variations" were titled at their 1741 publication "Clavier Ubung bestehend in einer ARIA mit verschiedenen Verænderungen" ("Keyboard exercise, consisting of one ARIA with diverse variations.")

Ralph Kirkpatrick

KirkpatrickK.Kirkpatrick, Ralph
The variations do not follow the melody of the aria, but rather use its bass line and chord progression . The bass line is notated by Ralph Kirkpatrick in his performing edition as follows.
He produced an edition of Bach's Goldberg Variations (1938, G. Schirmer, Inc. New York - 37149) which includes extensive discussion of ornamentation, fingering, phrasing, tempo, dynamics, and general interpretation.

Glenn Gould

GouldGould, GlennGlenn Gould’s
Contrasting it with Variation 15, Glenn Gould described this variation as "certainly one of the giddiest bits of neo-Scarlatti-ism imaginable." In an interview with Gould, Tim Page described this variation as having an "extraordinary chromatic texture"; Gould agreed: "I don't think there's been a richer lode of enharmonic relationships any place between Gesualdo and Wagner."
For example, a reviewer of his 1981 re-recording of the Goldberg Variations opined that many listeners would "find the groans and croons intolerable".

Wanda Landowska

LandowskaLandowska, Wanda
Wanda Landowska famously described this variation as "the black pearl" of the Goldberg Variations.
She was the first person to record Johann Sebastian Bach's Goldberg Variations on the harpsichord (1933).

French overture

Overturestandard French model
The variations found just after each canon are genre pieces of various types, among them three Baroque dances (4, 7, 19); a fughetta (10); a French overture (16); two ornate arias for the right hand (13, 25); and others (22, 28).
The 16th of Bach's Goldberg Variations is a miniature French overture.

Jacques Loussier

Jacques Loussier Trio
2000: Jacques Loussier, arrangement (arr.) for jazz trio
He is well known for his jazz interpretations in trio formation of many of Johann Sebastian Bach's works, such as in the Goldberg Variations.

String trio

triotriosterzetto
1984: Dmitry Sitkovetsky, tr. for string trio (he has also made an arrangement for string orchestra)

The Goldberg Variations (Uri Caine album)

The Goldberg VariationsThe Goldberg Variations'' (Uri Caine album)Uri Caine
2000: Uri Caine, arr. for various ensembles
The Goldberg Variations is a double CD album by pianist Uri Caine's Ensemble performing Johann Sebastian Bach's Goldberg Variations recorded in remembrance of 250th anniversary of his death and released on the Winter & Winter label.

Tim Page (music critic)

Tim Page
In an interview with Gould, Tim Page described this variation as having an "extraordinary chromatic texture"; Gould agreed: "I don't think there's been a richer lode of enharmonic relationships any place between Gesualdo and Wagner."
An interview with Glenn Gould, comparing the pianist's two versions of Bach's Goldberg Variations, was released as part of a three-CD set entitled A State of Wonder: The Complete Goldberg Variations 1955 & 1981 in 2002.

Dieterich Buxtehude

BuxtehudeDietrich BuxtehudeD. Buxtehude
The Kraut und Rüben theme, under the title of La Capricciosa, had previously been used by Dieterich Buxtehude for his thirty-two partite in G major, BuxWV 250.
BuxWV 250 La Capricciosa may have inspired Bach's Goldberg Variations BWV 988: both have 32 variations (including the two arias of the Goldberg Variations); there are a number of similarities in the structure of individual movements; both include variations in forms of various dances; both are in G major; and Bach was familiar with Buxtehude's work and admired him, as has been related above.

Goldberg Variations discography

Goldberg Variations'' discography
Goldberg Variations discography
This is a partial list of commercial or professional recordings of Johann Sebastian Bach's Goldberg Variations, organized chronologically.

József Eötvös (musician)

József EötvösEötvös, József
1997: József Eötvös, tr. for guitar
Eötvös is credited with the transcription and first ever recording of the Goldberg Variations in the original key, previously considered a most daunting cross-over from Bach's keyboard works.

Goldberg Variations (play)

Goldberg VariationsDie Goldberg-Variationen
Goldberg Variations, a satirical play by George Tabori
The title alludes to Bach's Goldberg Variations, which is also used as background music.

Ferruccio Busoni

BusoniOpFerrucio Busoni
The Italian composer Busoni prepared a greatly altered transcription for piano.
During this time he continued work on his Bach edition, including his version of the Goldberg Variations.

Józef Koffler

1938: Józef Koffler, tr. for orchestra / string orchestra
Orchestration of the Goldberg variations of J.S. Bach for small orchestra (1938)

Kimiko Douglass-Ishizaka

Douglass-Ishizaka, Kimiko
Public-domain piano recording by Kimiko Ishizaka (Open Goldberg Variations project), with linked newly edited score.
Ishizaka is part of the Open Goldberg Variations, a Kickstarter-funded, and Bösendorfer-sponsored team that recorded Johann Sebastian Bach's Goldberg Variations and released the score and recordings into the public domain in May, 2012.