Golden Horde

Kipchak KhanateUlus of JochiHordeMongolsTatarTatarsthe Golden HordeKhanate of the Golden HordeHordesMongol
The Golden Horde, Ulug Ulus (Алтан Орд; Алтын Орда, Altın Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda; Золотая Орда) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.wikipedia
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Batu Khan

BatuKhan BatuMongol invasion
After the death of Batu Khan (the founder of the Golden Horde) in 1255, his dynasty flourished for a full century, until 1359, though the intrigues of Nogai instigated a partial civil war in the late 1290s. The westernmost lands occupied by the Mongols, which included what is today southern Russia and Kazakhstan, were given to Jochi's eldest sons, Batu Khan, who eventually became ruler of the Blue Horde, and Orda Khan, who became the leader of the White Horde.
1205–1255), also known as Sain Khan (Good Khan) and Tsar Batu, was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire.

Nogai Khan

NogaiEuphrosyne PalaiologinaEuphrosyne
After the death of Batu Khan (the founder of the Golden Horde) in 1255, his dynasty flourished for a full century, until 1359, though the intrigues of Nogai instigated a partial civil war in the late 1290s.
Nogai (died 1299/1300), also called Nohai, Nokhai, Nogay, Noqai, Kara Nokhai, and Isa Nogai, was a general and de facto ruler of the Golden Horde and a great-great-grandson of Genghis Khan.

Kazakh Khanate

KazakhEsim KhanEsim
The Crimean Khanate and the Kazakh Khanate, the last remnants of the Golden Horde, survived until 1783 and 1847 respectively.
The Kazakh Khanate, Independent Tartaria (Қазақ Хандығы, Qazaq Handyǵy, قازاق حاندىعى) was a successor of the Golden Horde existing from the 15th to 19th century, located roughly on the territory of the present-day Republic of Kazakhstan.

Division of the Mongol Empire

division of the empirefragmentation of the Mongol Empirealready fragmented
With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate.
This civil war, along with the Berke–Hulagu war and the subsequent Kaidu–Kublai war, greatly weakened the authority of the Great Khan over the entirety of the Mongol Empire, and the empire fractured into autonomous khanates, including the Golden Horde in the northwest, the Chagatai Khanate in the middle, the Ilkhanate in the southwest, and the Yuan dynasty in the east based in modern-day Beijing, although the Yuan emperors held the nominal title of Khagan of the empire.

Tokhtamysh

ToqtamishToqtamyshToktamish
The khanate experienced violent internal political disorder beginning in 1359, before it briefly reunited (1381–1395) under Tokhtamysh.
1342–1406) a prominent khan of the Blue Horde, briefly unified the White Horde and Blue Horde subdivisions of the Golden Horde into a single state.

Mongol Empire

MongolMongolsMongolian Empire
The Golden Horde, Ulug Ulus (Алтан Орд; Алтын Орда, Altın Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda; Золотая Орда) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
The Battle of Ain Jalut in Galilee in 1260 marked the first time that the Mongols would not return to immediately avenge a defeat, due to a combination of the death of Möngke Khan in 1259, the Toluid Civil War between Ariq Böke and Kublai Khan, and Berke Khan of the Golden Horde attacking Hulegu in Persia.

Russia

Russian FederationRUSRussian
The westernmost lands occupied by the Mongols, which included what is today southern Russia and Kazakhstan, were given to Jochi's eldest sons, Batu Khan, who eventually became ruler of the Blue Horde, and Orda Khan, who became the leader of the White Horde.
Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century.

Orda Khan

Orda
The westernmost lands occupied by the Mongols, which included what is today southern Russia and Kazakhstan, were given to Jochi's eldest sons, Batu Khan, who eventually became ruler of the Blue Horde, and Orda Khan, who became the leader of the White Horde.
1206–1251) was a Mongol Khan and military strategist who ruled eastern part of the Golden Horde (division of the Mongol Empire) during the 13th century.

Great Horde

Hordesteppe remnant
By 1466, it was being referred to simply as the "Great Horde".
It was the steppe remnant of the Golden Horde.

Timur

TamerlaneTimur LenkAmir Timur
However, soon after the 1396 invasion of Timur, the founder of the Timurid Empire, the Golden Horde broke into smaller Tatar khanates which declined steadily in power.
By the end of his reign, Timur had gained complete control over all the remnants of the Chagatai Khanate, the Ilkhanate, and the Golden Horde, and even attempted to restore the Yuan dynasty in China.

Khanate

KhaganatekhanatesGreat Khan
The Golden Horde, Ulug Ulus (Алтан Орд; Алтын Орда, Altın Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda; Золотая Орда) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.

Siberia

SiberianEastern SiberiaEast Siberia
The territory of the Golden Horde at its peak included most of Eastern Europe from the Urals to the Danube River, and extended east deep into Siberia.
With the breakup of the Golden Horde, the autonomous Khanate of Sibir formed in the late-15th century.

Wings of the Golden Horde

White HordeBlue HordeBatu's horde
The westernmost lands occupied by the Mongols, which included what is today southern Russia and Kazakhstan, were given to Jochi's eldest sons, Batu Khan, who eventually became ruler of the Blue Horde, and Orda Khan, who became the leader of the White Horde.
When he died, they inherited their father's dominions as fiefs under the rule of their brothers, Batu Khan, as supreme khan and Orda Khan, who, although the elder of the two, agreed that Batu enjoyed primacy as the Khan of the Golden Horde (Jochid Ulus).

Shiban

SheybanShaybanShayban (Shiban)
Shortly before that, the younger brother of Batu and Orda, Shiban, was given his own enormous ulus east of the Ural Mountains along the Ob and Irtysh Rivers.
Shiban (Sheiban) or Shayban (Шибан, Shiban; Shaybon / Шайбон) was a prince of the early Golden Horde.

Ukraine

UkrainianUKRUkrainia
From there he conquered some of the southern steppes of present-day Ukraine in 1237, forcing many of the local Cumans to retreat westward.
Formed from Golden Horde territory conquered after the Mongol invasion the Crimean Khanate was one of the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the 18th century; in 1571 it even captured and devastated Moscow.

Mongols

MongolMongolianMongolians
The Golden Horde, Ulug Ulus (Алтан Орд; Алтын Орда, Altın Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda; Золотая Орда) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. The westernmost lands occupied by the Mongols, which included what is today southern Russia and Kazakhstan, were given to Jochi's eldest sons, Batu Khan, who eventually became ruler of the Blue Horde, and Orda Khan, who became the leader of the White Horde.
The Mongolic peoples of the Golden Horde established themselves to govern Russia by 1240.

Orda (organization)

hordeordaordo
But the Mongolic word for the color yellow (Sarı/Saru) also meant "center" or "central" in Old Turkic and Mongolic languages, and "horde" probably comes from the Mongolic word ordu, meaning palace, camp or headquarters, so "Golden Horde" may simply have come from a Mongolic term for "central camp".
While the East Slavic term ordo and later derived term horda/horde were in origin borrowings from the Turkic term ordo for "camp, headquarters", the original term did not carry the meaning of a large khanate such as the Golden Horde.

Crimean Tatars

Crimean TatarTatarTatars
The remnants of the Crimean Cumans survived in the Crimean mountains, and they would, in time, mix with other groups in the Crimea (including Greeks, Goths, and Mongols) to form the Crimean Tatar population.
When the Golden Horde invaded Crimea in the 1230s, they then mixed with populations which had settled in Eastern Europe, including Crimea since the seventh century: Tatars, but also Mongols and other Turkic groups (Khazars, Pechenegs, Cumans and Kipchaks), as well as the ancient.

Timurid Empire

TimuridTimuridsEmperor
However, soon after the 1396 invasion of Timur, the founder of the Timurid Empire, the Golden Horde broke into smaller Tatar khanates which declined steadily in power.
In 1394–95, he triumphed over the Golden Horde, following his successful campaign in Georgia, after which he enforced his sovereignty in the Caucasus.

Great Stand on the Ugra River

Great standing on the Ugra riverbroke his formal subordinationfinally broken the Russians free
These internal struggles allowed the northern vassal state of Muscovy to rid itself of the "Tatar Yoke" at the Great Stand on the Ugra River in 1480.
At the same time the Golden Horde was breaking up and the steppe remnant came to be called the Great Horde.

Vladimir-Suzdal

Vladimir-Suzdal PrincipalityPrincipality of RostovPrincipality of Vladimir-Suzdal
Güyük appointed Andrey Grand prince of Vladimir-Suzdal and Alexander prince of Kiev.
A governorship of principality, however, was prescribed by a Khan declaration (jarlig) issued from the Golden Horde to a noble family of any of smaller principalities.

Berke

Berke KhanGolden Horde
Ulaghchi died soon after and Batu's younger brother Berke, who had been converted to Islam, was enthroned as khan of the Golden Horde in 1258.
Berke Khan (died 1266) (also Birkai; Бэрх хаан, Бәркә хан) was a Mongolian military commander and ruler of the Golden Horde (division of the Mongol Empire) who effectively consolidated the power of the Blue Horde and White Horde from 1257 to 1266.

Bulgaria

BULBulgarianRepublic of Bulgaria
In 1242, after retreating through Hungary, destroying Pest in the process, and subjugating Bulgaria, Batu established his capital at Sarai, commanding the lower stretch of the Volga River, on the site of the Khazar capital of Atil.
Internal conflicts and incessant Byzantine and Hungarian attacks followed, enabling the Mongols to establish suzerainty over the weakened Bulgarian state.

Kurultai

kurultaykhuriltaiquriltai
When the Great Khatun Töregene invited Batu to elect the next Emperor of the Mongol Empire in 1242, he declined to attend the kurultai and instead stayed at the Volga River.
All Great Khans of the Mongol Empire, for example Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan, were formally elected in a Kurultai; khans of subordinate Mongol states, such as the Golden Horde, were elected by a similar regional Kurultai.

Jochi

JochidJochi KhanJöchi
It is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi.
His sons Orda and Batu founded the White Horde and the Blue Horde, respectively, and would later combine their territories into the Kipchak Khanate or Golden Horde.