A report on Kazakhstan and Golden Horde

Approximate extent of Scythia within the area of distribution of Eastern Iranian languages (shown in orange) in the 1st century BC
Decisive Golden Horde victory in the Battle of Mohi
Batu Khan establishes the Golden Horde.
Cuman–Kipchak confederation in Eurasia circa 1200. The Kazakhs are descendants of Kipchaks, Nogais and other Turkic and medieval Mongol tribes
Jochi Mausoleum, Karagandy Region
Ural Cossacks skirmish with Kazakhs (the Russians originally called the Kazakhs "Kirgiz")
Routes taken by Mongol invaders
Map of the Kazakh Territory in 1903
The Golden Horde army defeats the Ilkhanate at the battle of Terek in 1262. Many of Hulagu's men drowned in the Terek River while withdrawing.
Stanitsa Sofiiskaya, Talgar. 1920s
Tode Mongke Khan of the Golden Horde
Young Pioneers at a Young Pioneer camp in Kazakh SSR
Regions in the lower Volga inhabited by the descendants of Nogai Khan
The International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978, known as the Alma-Ata Declaration
The Jochid vassal princes of Galicia-Volhynia contributed troops for invasions of Europe by Nogai Khan and Talabuga.
The Monument of Independence, Republic Square, Almaty
The division of the Mongol Empire, c. 1300, with the Golden Horde in yellow
Satellite image of Kazakhstan (November 2004)
The Bulgarian Empire was still tributary to the Mongols in 1308.
The Kazakh Steppe is part of the Eurasian Steppe Belt (in on the map)
Dmitri avenging the death of his father in the ordo (palace) of Uzbeg Khan, killing Yury.
Karaganda Region
Territories of the Golden Horde under Öz Beg Khan.
Kazakhstan map of Köppen climate classification
The battle between the armies of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Golden Horde in 1363
Corsac fox
The Battle of Kulikovo in 1380
Ak Orda Presidential Palace
Emir Timur and his forces advance against the Golden Horde, Khan Tokhtamysh.
Parliament of Kazakhstan
Tokhtamysh besieges Moscow.
Nur Otan Headquarters in Nur-Sultan
The Great stand on the Ugra river, 1480
President Nazarbayev with U.S. President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in 2012
The Golden Horde and its Rus' tributaries in 1313 under Öz Beg Khan
President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev with 
Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2019
Alexander Nevsky and a Mongol shaman
Member states of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)
Tilework fragments of a palace in Sarai.
Kazakhstan Republican Guard
Talabuga's coin, dating {{ca.}} 1287–1291 AD.
A Kazakhstan Sukhoi Su-27
Jani Beg's coin, dating {{ca.}} 1342–1357 AD.
Downtown Nur-Sultan
Berdi Beg's coin minted in Azak, dating {{ca.}} 1357 AD.
GDP per capita development, since 1973
Kildibeg's coin minted in Sarai, dating {{ca.}} 1360 AD.
A proportional representation of Kazakhstan exports, 2019
Ordumelik's coin minted in Azak, dating {{ca.}} 1360 AD.
Aktau is Kazakhstan's only seaport on the Caspian Sea
Muscovite coin minted in the name of Abdullah ibn Uzbeg, dating {{ca.}} 1367–1368 or 1369–1370
A map of Kazakhstan's imports, 2013
Dawlat Berdi's coin minted in Kaffa, dating {{ca.}} 1419–1421 or 1428–1432 AD.
Kazakhstan has the largest proven oil reserves in the Caspian Sea region.
Golden Horde raid at Ryazan
Grain fields near Kokshetau
Golden Horde raid at Kiev
Map of Kazakhstan railway network
Golden Horde raid at Kozelsk
Train 22 Kyzylorda – Semipalatinsk, hauled by a Kazakhstan Temir Zholy 2TE10U diesel locomotive. Picture taken near Aynabulak, Kazakhstan
Golden Horde raid Vladimir
Borovoe, view from Mount Bolectau
Golden Horde raid Suzdal
A ski resort in Almaty
Mongol-Tatar warriors besiege their opponents.
Astana Expo 2017 "Nur Alem" Pavilion
Mongols chase Hungarian king from Mohi, detail from Chronicon Pictum.
Almaty
The Mongol army captures a Rus' city
Trends in research expenditure in Central Asia, as a percentage of GDP, 2001–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: 2030 (2015), Figure 14.3
Mongol invasion of Hungary in 1285
Group of Kazakhstan physicists in collaboration with Uzbek researchers working at the ion accelerator DC-60
Edigu's invasion of Rus.
Baikonur Cosmodrome is the world's oldest and largest operational spaceport
The sack of Suzdal by Batu Khan in 1238, miniature from 16th-century chronicle.
Population pyramid, 2020
The battle of Liegnitz, 1241. From a medieval manuscript of the Hedwig legend.
Central Asian ethnolinguistic patchwork, 1992
Drawing of Mongols of the Golden Horde outside Vladimir presumably demanding submission before sacking the city
Kazakhstanis on a Lake Jasybay beach, Pavlodar Region
Paiza of Abdullah Khan (r. 1361–70) with Mongolian script
Ascension Cathedral in Almaty
Mongol-Tatar raid
Khazret Sultan Mosque is the biggest mosque in Kazakhstan
A Rus' prince being punished by the Golden Horde
Kazakh National University of Arts
A Kazakhstan performer demonstrates the long equestrian heritage as part of the gala concert during the opening ceremonies of the Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalion
Kanysh Satpayev, one of the founders of Soviet era metallogeny, principal advocate and the first president of Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences
1965 Soviet stamp honouring Kazakh essayist and poet Abai Qunanbaiuly
Nowruz on stamp of Kazakhstan
A-Studio was created in 1982 in Almaty, then called Alma-Ata, hence called "Alma-Ata Studio"
Astana Arena opened in 2009
Nikolai Antropov
International Astana Action Film Festival, 2010
Timur Bekmambetov, a notable Kazakh director

The westernmost lands occupied by the Mongols, which included what is today southern Russia and Kazakhstan, were given to Jochi's eldest sons, Batu Khan, who eventually became ruler of the Blue Horde, and Orda Khan, who became the leader of the White Horde.

- Golden Horde

After the Division of the Mongol Empire in 1259, the land that would become modern-day Kazakhstan was ruled by the Golden Horde, also known as the Ulus of Jochi.

- Kazakhstan

9 related topics with Alpha

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The countries and autonomous regions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority

Turkic peoples

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The Turkic peoples are a collection of diverse ethnic groups of Central, East, North, South and West Asia as well as parts of Europe, who speak Turkic languages.

The Turkic peoples are a collection of diverse ethnic groups of Central, East, North, South and West Asia as well as parts of Europe, who speak Turkic languages.

The countries and autonomous regions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority
The distribution of the Turkic languages
Map from Kashgari's Diwan (11th century), showing the distribution of Turkic tribes.
A page from "Codex Kumanicus". The Codex was designed in order to help Catholic missionaries communicate with the Kumans.
Descriptive map of Turkic peoples.
Eastern Hemisphere in 500 BCE
Genetic, archeologic and linguistic evidence links the early Turkic peoples to the "Northeast Asian gene pool". Proto-Turks are suggested to have adopted a nomadic lifestyle and expanded from eastern Mongolia westwards.
Xiongnu, Mongolic, and proto-Turkic tribes (ca. 300 CE)
Territory of the Xiongnu, which included Mongolia, Western Manchuria, Xinjiang, East Kazakhstan, East Kyrgyzstan, Inner Mongolia, and Gansu.
Huns (c.450 CE)
First Turk Khaganate (600 CE)
The Eastern and Western Turkic Khaganates (600 CE)
Colored terracotta figurine of a Gokturk male found in a Kurgan, Kazakhstan, 5th-6th c.
A Turkic warrior from the Göktürk period. The horse's tail is knotted in Turkic style. His hair is long, braided and his big-collared caftan and boots are Turkic clothing features.
The migration of the Bulgars after the fall of Old Great Bulgaria in the 7th century
Golden Horde
Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur painting from the Bezeklik murals
Old Uyghur Princes from the Bezeklik murals.
The Turkic Later Tang Dynasty
Kangar Union after the fall of Western Turkic Khaganate, 659–750
Oghuz Yabgu State (c.750 CE)
Ghaznavid Empire at its greatest extent in 1030 CE
A map showing the Seljuk Empire at its height, upon the death of Malik Shah I in 1092.
Head of Seljuq male royal figure, 12–13th century, from Iran.
Map of the Timurid Empire at its greatest extent under Timur.
Silver dirham of AH 329 (940/941 CE), with the names of Caliph al-Muttaqi and Amir al-umara Bajkam (de facto ruler of the country)
Independent Turkic states shown in red
Map of TÜRKSOY members.
Bashkirs, painting from 1812, Paris
A shaman doctor of Kyzyl.
Circle dance of Shamans 1911
An Old Uyghur Khagan
Göktürk petroglyphs from Mongolia (6th to 8th century)
A Penjikent man dressed in “Turkic“ long coats, 6th-8th c.
Kyz kuu.
Turk vassal blacksmiths under Mongolian rule
Turkic hunting scene, Gokturk period Altai
Battle scene of a Turkic horseman with typical long hair (Gokturk period, Altai)
Old Uyghur king from Turfan, from the murals at the Dunhuang Mogao Caves.
Old Uyghur prince from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur woman from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Princess.
Old Uyghur Princesses from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Prince from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur noble from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Manichaean Elect depicted on a temple banner from Qocho.
Old Uyghur donor from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Manichaean Electae from Qocho.
Old Uyghur Manichaean clergymen from Qocho.
Fresco of Palm Sunday from Qocho.
Manicheans from Qocho
Khan Omurtag of Bulgaria, from the Chronicle of John Skylitzes.
Ghaznavid portrait, Palace of Lashkari Bazar.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Schlumberger |first1=Daniel |title=Le Palais ghaznévide de Lashkari Bazar |journal=Syria |date=1952 |volume=29 |issue=3/4 |page=263 & 267|doi=10.3406/syria.1952.4789 |jstor=4390312 |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/4390312 |issn=0039-7946}}</ref>
Azerbaijani girls in traditional dress.
Gagauz women and man.
Bashkir boys in national dress.
A Chuvash girl in traditional dress.
Khakas people with traditional instruments.
Nogai man in national costume.
Turkish girls in their traditional clothes, Dursunbey, Balikesir Province.
Turkmen girl in national dress.
Tuvan men and women in Kyzyl, Tuva.
Kazakh man in traditional clothing.
Uzbek with traditional cuisine.
Kyrgyz traditional eagle hunter.
Tuvan traditional shaman.
Yakut Sakha family in traditional attire.

In the 13th century, Mongols invaded Europe and established the Golden Horde in Eastern Europe, western & northern Central Asia, and even western Siberia.

The Kangar Union (Qanghar Odaghu) was a Turkic state in the former territory of the Western Turkic Khaganate (the entire present-day state of Kazakhstan, without Zhetysu).

Cumans

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The Cumans (or Kumans), also known as Polovtsians or Polovtsy (plural only, from the Russian exonym половцы), were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation.

The Cumans (or Kumans), also known as Polovtsians or Polovtsy (plural only, from the Russian exonym половцы), were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation.

300px
The field of Igor Svyatoslavich's battle with the Cuman&ndash;Kipchaks, by Viktor Vasnetsov
Pecheneg and Cuman raids into Hungary in the 11th century
Ivan Bilibin's illustration to The Tale of Igor's Campaign shows the Cumans fighting against the Rus'.
Central, Southern and Eastern Europe, 1190
Cuman statue, 12th century, Luhansk
Eurasia before the Mongol invasions
The conquests of Genghis Khan
Cumans arriving to Hungary.
Kingdom of Hungary, 13th century
King Ladislaus IV of Hungary. Ladislaus' mother, Elizabeth the Cuman, was the daughter of a Cuman chief.
Cumans
Historical coat of arms of Kunság, where Cumans in Hungary settled, divided into Little Cumania and Greater Cumania
Steppe nomads fighting the Hungarians, Chronicon Pictum, 14th century
Coat of arms of Maria Theresa as "king" of Hungary, 1777
The division of the Mongol Empire, c. 1300, with the Golden Horde in yellow
Cuman camp
Cuman representation in the Radziwiłł Chronicle
The Mamluks were warrior-slaves in the Islamic world. Many Mamluks were of Cuman origin.
A modern reenactment of Cumans
Battle between the Cumans and Grand Duke Andrei Bogolyubsky
Monument to the Asen dynasty in their capital Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria. The dynasty was of Cuman origin and was responsible for establishing the Second Bulgarian Empire. Sculptor: prof. Krum Damianov
Kunság (Cumania) in the 18th century within the Kingdom of Hungary. It was divided into Greater Cumania and Little Cumania.
Historical coat of arms of Cumania. Stained glass window in the southern nave of the St Elisabeth Cathedral, Košice, Slovakia.
Cuman sculpture in Kharkiv, Ukraine.
Cuman statue "Baba" in Nieborów, Poland
"Baba" 11th century, Luhansk
"Baba" 11th century, Luhansk
"Baba" 11th century, Luhansk
"Baba" 11th century, Luhansk
"Baba" 11th century, Luhansk
Cuman statue
Cuman statue
Cuman sculpture
Cuman statue in Stadnitsja Kiev c. 12th century
Cuman battle mask
Cuman statue at the Donetsk local history museum
Equestrian statue of a Cuman warrior, Kunhegyes, Hungary
Cuman, 12th century, Hermitage Museum
Cuman statues near the museum on Akademik Yavornitskyi Prospekt, Dnipro
Cuman statue
"Baba" at the Open Air Museum, Prelesne
Chormukhinsk Madonna, Luhansk
Cuman Stone statue "baba"
Cuman Stone statue "baba"
Ladislas IV "The Cuman" of Hungary, 14th century
Ladislaus IV of Hungary "the Cuman"
Samuel Aba king of Hungary
Elizabeth the Cuman mediaeval seal
Kunkereszt ("Cuman cross") in Belez, periphery of Magyarcsanád, Hungary
Cuman stone statues "babas"
Cuman statues from Ukraine in Neues Museum, Berlin
Cuman chain mail
Cuman statue
Cuman prairie art, as exhibited in Dnipro
Cumans in Hungary
Cuman burial mound in Hungary
Cuman stone statues in Donetsk damaged in fighting (22 September 2014)
Pursuit of Cuman horsemen (right) by the Hungarian King Ladislaus I (left), church of Kraskovo, Slovakia, 14th century

Many eventually settled west of the Black Sea, influencing the politics of Kievan Rus', the Galicia–Volhynia Principality, the Golden Horde Khanate, the Second Bulgarian Empire, the Kingdom of Serbia, the Kingdom of Hungary, Moldavia, the Kingdom of Georgia, the Byzantine Empire, the Empire of Nicaea, the Latin Empire and Wallachia, with Cuman immigrants becoming integrated into each country's elite.

The Cuman–Kipchaks never established a state, instead forming a Cuman–Kipchak confederation (Cumania/Desht-i Qipchaq/Zemlja Poloveckaja (Polovcian Land)/Pole Poloveckoe (Polovcian Plain)), which stretched from the Danube in the west to Taraz, Kazakhstan in the east.

Cumania (Desht-i Qipchaq) c. 1200.

Cumania

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Tribal confederation in the western part of the Eurasian Steppe, between the 10th and 13th centuries.

Tribal confederation in the western part of the Eurasian Steppe, between the 10th and 13th centuries.

Cumania (Desht-i Qipchaq) c. 1200.
Kazakh Tamga of Kypchak tribe
Cuman/Kipchak statue, 12th century, Luhansk
Coat of Arms of early modern Kunság

A different, more organized entity that came later known as the Golden Horde was also referred to as "Comania" by Armenian chronicler Hethum (Hayton) of Korykos.

By the 11th and 12th centuries, the nomadic confederacy of the Cumans and (Eastern) Kipchaks (who were a distinct tribe with whom the Cumans created a confederacy) were the dominant force over the vast territories stretching from the present-day Kazakhstan, southern Russia, Ukraine, to southern Moldavia and eastern Wallachia in present day Romania.

Kipchak portrait in a 12th-century balbal in Luhansk.

Kipchaks

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The Kipchaks, also known as Kipchak Turks, Qipchaq or Polovtsians, were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.

The Kipchaks, also known as Kipchak Turks, Qipchaq or Polovtsians, were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.

Kipchak portrait in a 12th-century balbal in Luhansk.
Cumania in c. 1200.

Following the Mongol conquest, Islam rose in popularity among the Kipchaks of the Golden Horde.

The name Kipchak also occurs as a surname in Kazakhstan.

Uzbek people at a market in Khiva, Uzbekistan.

Uzbeks

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The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek, Ўзбек, اوزبک, plural: Oʻzbeklar, Ўзбеклар, اوزبکلر) are a Turkic ethnic group native to wider Central Asia, being the largest Turkic ethnic group in the area.

The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek, Ўзбек, اوزبک, plural: Oʻzbeklar, Ўзбеклар, اوزبکلر) are a Turkic ethnic group native to wider Central Asia, being the largest Turkic ethnic group in the area.

Uzbek people at a market in Khiva, Uzbekistan.
Female statuette bearing the kaunakes. Chlorite and limestone, Bactria, beginning of the 2nd millennium BC
Turkish officers during a audience with king Varkhuman of Samarkand. 648-651 CE, Afrasiyab murals, Samarkand.
Clothing of Uzbek men, Khiva
Timur feasts in Samarkand
Ulugbeg with ladies of his harem and retainers,1425-1450.
Shaybani Khan, 1507
A lithograph of two Uzbek Khans from Afghanistan in 1841.
The Defence of the Samarkand Citadel in 1868. From the Russian Illustrated Magazine "Niva" (1872).
Uzbek Mulla Dzhan Turdi Ali, Uncle of the Kokand Khan's Older Son, 19th century
Uzbek students after graduation
Uzbek elders
Uzbek family in the United States
Ibrahim Bek, revolutionary leader against the Soviet Union, in 1920
Traditional Uzbek costume circa 1840s
Uzbek children, in traditional clothing 19th-20th cen.
Women in school uniform, Samarkand, 2008
An Uzbek man wearing a skullcap, otherwise known as doppa or tyubeteika
thumb|Early coin of Tegin Shah, in the style of the Nezak Huns, whom he displaced. Tokharistan, late 7th century CE.
Trilingual coin of Tegin Shah towards the end of his reign. Tokharistan,728 CE
Photographs of Uzbek from Afghanistan in 1924 and Tashkent in 1872.

They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan but are also found as a minority group in: Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Russia, Pakistan, and China.

The name Uzbek seems to have become widely adopted as an ethnonym under the rule of Ozbeg Khan, who converted the Golden Horde to Islam.

Siberia

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Extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east.

Extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east.

Horseman hunting, with characteristic Xiongnu horse trappings, Southern Siberia, 280-180 BCE. Hermitage Museum.
Chukchi, one of many indigenous peoples of Siberia. Representation of a Chukchi family by Louis Choris (1816)
Map of the Siberian Route in the 18th century (green) and the early 19th century (red)
Coat of arms of Siberia, which was a part of the Russian Imperial Coat of Arms until 1917
Siberian Cossack family in Novosibirsk
Altai, Lake Kutsherla in the Altai Mountains
The peninsula of Svyatoy Nos, Lake Baikal
The river Vasyugan in the southern West Siberian Plain
View from Haiyrakan mountain, Tuva
Siberian taiga
Koryaksky volcano towering over Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky on the Kamchatka Peninsula
Belukha Mountain
Verkhoyansk Range
A Siberian tigress and cub
Kamchatka brown bear at Kamchatka Peninsula
Polar bear on Wrangel Island
Capercaillies occupy much of the Siberian taiga.
A Daurian partridge covey feeding.
Two saddled Bactrian camels shedding their coat in the Altai mountain range.
[//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Siberian_Cities_Map.svg Map of the most populated area of Siberia] with clickable city names (SVG)
[//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/Siberian_Cities_Graph.svg Comparison of the nine biggest Siberian cities' growth in the 20th century]
Novosibirsk is the largest city in Siberia
Amur waterfront in Khabarovsk
Vladivostok, Primorsky Krai
Yakutsk is the capital of the Sakha Republic
Russian oil and gas pipelines in use before international sanctions and boycotts following Russia's 2022 invasion of Ukraine.
KHL game HC Sibir Novosibirsk vs Amur Khabarovsk
Opening Ceremony of the 2019 Winter Universiade
Tomsk, one of the oldest Siberian cities, was founded in 1604.
Transfiguration Cathedral, Khabarovsk

Siberia stretches southwards from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and to the northern parts of Mongolia and China.

With the breakup of the Golden Horde, the autonomous Khanate of Sibir formed in the late-15th century.

The trellis-walled yurt of Muhammad Shaybani Khan.

Shaybanids

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The trellis-walled yurt of Muhammad Shaybani Khan.
Muhammad Shaybani.

The Shibanids or Shaybanids or more accurately the Abu'l-Khayrid-Shibanids were a Persianized Turko-Mongol dynasty in Central Asia who ruled over most of modern-day Kazakhstan, much of Uzbekistan, and parts of southern Russia (including Siberia) in the 15th century.

As the lineages of Batu and Orda died out in the course of the great civil wars of the 14th century, the Shaybanids under Abu'l-Khayr Khan declared themselves the only legitimate successors to Jochi and put forward claims to the whole of his enormous ulus, which included parts of Siberia and Kazakhstan.

Oirats

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In the Altai region of Siberia, Xinjiang and Western Mongolia.

In the Altai region of Siberia, Xinjiang and Western Mongolia.

Mongol Empire c. 1207
Fragment of medieval Oirat map
Oirat ceremonial hat
The Zunghar Khanate at 1750 (light-blue color)
This map fragment shows territories of the Zunghar Khanate as in 1706. (Map Collection of the Library of Congress: "Carte de Tartarie" of Guillaume de L'Isle (1675–1726))

Because the Oirats were near both the Chagatai Khanate and the Golden Horde, they had strong ties with them and many Mongol khans had Oirat wives.

The 17th century saw the rise of another Oirat empire in the east, known as the Khanate of Dzungaria, which stretched from the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan, and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia.

Ural (river)

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The bridge across the Ural in the Uchalinsky District (Bashkortostan)
The "bird's-foot" ("digitate") delta of the Ural in the Caspian Sea
Eurasian Spoonbill
Northern mole vole
Bagrenye on the Ural River. Drawing by N. F. Savichev (19th century)
The tip of an old pike pole

The Ural (Урал, ), known as Yaik (Яик, Яйыҡ, ; Жайық, جايىق, ) before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan in the continental border between Europe and Asia.

In the 13th century, it became a stronghold of the Golden Horde.