A report on Golden mole

Chrysochloris asiatica Cape golden mole adult, showing the digging claw, absence of external eye and a hint of the iridescence of the fur. The rhinarium is not obvious in this photograph.

Golden moles are small insectivorous burrowing mammals endemic to Sub-Saharan Africa.

- Golden mole

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A European mole

Mole (animal)

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Moles are small mammals adapted to a subterranean lifestyle.

Moles are small mammals adapted to a subterranean lifestyle.

A European mole
Mole paw
Uropsilus
Broad-footed mole
A marsupial mole
Advertisement in Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News, 1921
Molehills in eastern Bohemia
A mole trap

These are the golden moles of southern Africa and the marsupial moles of Australia.

The original synapsid skull structure contains one temporal opening behind the orbitals, in a fairly low position on the skull (lower right in this image). This opening might have assisted in containing the jaw muscles of these organisms which could have increased their biting strength.

Mammal

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Mammals are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a neocortex (a region of the brain), fur or hair, and three middle ear bones.

Mammals are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a neocortex (a region of the brain), fur or hair, and three middle ear bones.

The original synapsid skull structure contains one temporal opening behind the orbitals, in a fairly low position on the skull (lower right in this image). This opening might have assisted in containing the jaw muscles of these organisms which could have increased their biting strength.
Restoration of Juramaia sinensis, the oldest known Eutherian (160 M.Y.A.)
Fossil of Thrinaxodon at the National Museum of Natural History
Raccoon lungs being inflated manually
Mammal skin: 1 — hair, 2 — epidermis, 3 — sebaceous gland, 4 — Arrector pili muscle, 5 — dermis, 6 — hair follicle, 7 — sweat gland, 8 (not labeled, the bottom layer) — hypodermis, showing round adipocytes
Bovine kidney
A diagram of ultrasonic signals emitted by a bat, and the echo from a nearby object
Porcupines use their spines for defense.
A leopard's disruptively colored coat provides camouflage for this ambush predator.
Goat kids stay with their mother until they are weaned.
Matschie's tree-kangaroo with young in pouch
Running gait. Photographs by Eadweard Muybridge, 1887.
Gibbons are very good brachiators because their elongated limbs enable them to easily swing and grasp on to branches.
Vervet monkeys use at least four distinct alarm calls for different predators.
A bonobo fishing for termites with a stick
Female elephants live in stable groups, along with their offspring.
Red kangaroos "boxing" for dominance
Upper Paleolithic cave painting of a variety of large mammals, Lascaux, c. 17,300 years old
Cattle have been kept for milk for thousands of years.
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Biodiversity of large mammal species per continent before and after humans arrived there
Sexual dimorphism in aurochs, the extinct wild ancestor of cattle.

However, the tenrecs, golden moles, and some shrews retain a cloaca as adults.

Placentalia

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Placental mammals (infraclass Placentalia ) are one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia; the other two are Monotremata and Marsupialia.

Placental mammals (infraclass Placentalia ) are one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia; the other two are Monotremata and Marsupialia.

Magnorder Atlantogenata (armadillos, sloths, anteaters, aardvark, elephant shrews, golden moles, otter shrews, tenrecs, hyraxes, elephants, and sirenians)

Tenrec

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Any species of mammal within the afrotherian family Tenrecidae endemic to Madagascar.

Any species of mammal within the afrotherian family Tenrecidae endemic to Madagascar.

A taxidermy of a tenrec in defensive mode, Horniman Museum and Gardens, London

The smallest species are the size of shrews, with a body length of around 4.5 cm, and weighing just 5 g, while the largest, the common or tailless tenrec, is 25 to 39 cm in length, and can weigh over 1 kg. Although they may resemble shrews, hedgehogs, or opossums, they are not closely related to any of these groups, their closest relatives being the otter shrews, and after that, other African insectivorous mammals, such as golden moles and elephant shrews.

Afrosoricida

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The order Afrosoricida (a Latin-Greek compound name which means "looking like African shrews") contains the golden moles of Southern Africa, the otter shrews of equatorial Africa and the tenrecs of Madagascar.

European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus)

Insectivora

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Now-abandoned biological grouping within the class of mammals.

Now-abandoned biological grouping within the class of mammals.

European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus)
The extinct Centetodon marginalis

However, molecular evidence indicated that Chrysochloridae (golden moles), Tenrecidae (tenrecs), and Potamogalidae (otter shrews) should also be separated as a new order Afrosoricida.

Diagrams to illustrate the changes in the cloaca in mammals during development. A, early embryonic stage, showing the cloaca receiving the urinary bladder, the rectum, and the Wolffian duct, as in non-therian vertebrates. B, later stage, showing the beginning of the fold which divides the cloaca into a ventral urogenital sinus which receives the urinary bladder, Wolffian ducts, and ureters, and into a dorsal part which receives the rectum. C, further progress of the fold, dividing the cloaca into urogenital sinus and rectum; the ureter has separated from the Wolffian duct and is shifting anteriorly. D, completion of the fold, showing complete separation of the cloaca into ventral urogenital sinus and dorsal rectum.

Cloaca

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Posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of many vertebrate animals.

Posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of many vertebrate animals.

Diagrams to illustrate the changes in the cloaca in mammals during development. A, early embryonic stage, showing the cloaca receiving the urinary bladder, the rectum, and the Wolffian duct, as in non-therian vertebrates. B, later stage, showing the beginning of the fold which divides the cloaca into a ventral urogenital sinus which receives the urinary bladder, Wolffian ducts, and ureters, and into a dorsal part which receives the rectum. C, further progress of the fold, dividing the cloaca into urogenital sinus and rectum; the ureter has separated from the Wolffian duct and is shifting anteriorly. D, completion of the fold, showing complete separation of the cloaca into ventral urogenital sinus and dorsal rectum.
Cloaca of a female bird
Cloaca of a male bird
A roseate spoonbill excreting urine in flight
Cloacal opening in an Australian brushtail possum
Some aquatic turtle species can breathe underwater using a process known as cloacal respiration. In this process the turtles pump water into their cloacal orifice (labeled 1) by contracting muscles in their inguinal pocket. The water then travels to the cloacal bursae (labeled 2), which are a pair of internal pouch-like structures. The cloacal bursae are lined with long fimbriae (labeled 3), which is the site of gas exchange.
Cloaca of a Red-tailed hawk

All amphibians, reptiles, birds, and a few mammals (monotremes, tenrecs, golden moles, and marsupial moles) have this orifice, from which they excrete both urine and feces; this is in contrast to most placental mammals, which have two or three separate orifices for evacuation.

Grant's golden mole

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Grant's golden mole (Eremitalpa granti; colloquially also: dune shark) is a golden mole species.

Marsupial mole

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Notoryctes typhlops (southern marsupial mole, known as the itjaritjari by the Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara people in Central Australia).

Notoryctes typhlops (southern marsupial mole, known as the itjaritjari by the Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara people in Central Australia).

Like chrysochlorids and epoicotheres, notoryctids use their forelimbs and enlarged central claws to dig in a parasagittal (i.e., up and down) plane, as opposed to the "lateral scratch" style of digging that characterizes talpid moles.

Cape golden mole

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The Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica) is a small, insectivorous mammal of the family Chrysochloridae, the golden moles.