Golgi apparatus

Golgitrans-Golgi networkGolgi bodiesgolgi complexdictyosomeGolgi bodygolgi membraneGolgi networkGolgi vesiclecis face
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.wikipedia
550 Related Articles

Endomembrane system

endomembranesintracellular membranesendomembrane
Part of the endomembrane system in the cytoplasm, the Golgi apparatus packages proteins into membrane-bound vesicles inside the cell before the vesicles are sent to their destination.
In eukaryotes the organelles of the endomembrane system include: the nuclear membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesicles, endosomes, plasma (cell) membrane among others.

Camillo Golgi

GolgiCamillio GolgiCamillo Gogi
It was identified in 1897 by the Italian scientist Camillo Golgi and named after him in 1898.
Several structures and phenomena in anatomy and physiology are named for him, including the Golgi apparatus, the Golgi tendon organ and the Golgi tendon reflex.

Eukaryote

eukaryoticeukaryotesEukaryota
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus, and in addition, some cells of plants and algae contain chloroplasts.

Protein targeting

translocationtraffickingtranslocated
Part of the endomembrane system in the cytoplasm, the Golgi apparatus packages proteins into membrane-bound vesicles inside the cell before the vesicles are sent to their destination.
Most proteins that are secretory, membrane-bound, or reside in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), golgi or endosomes use the co-translational translocation pathway.

Vesicle (biology and chemistry)

vesiclesvesiclevesicular
Part of the endomembrane system in the cytoplasm, the Golgi apparatus packages proteins into membrane-bound vesicles inside the cell before the vesicles are sent to their destination. The CGN is the first cisternal structure, and the TGN is the final, from which proteins are packaged into vesicles destined to lysosomes, secretory vesicles, or the cell surface. In this model, the Golgi is viewed as a set of stable compartments that work together. Each compartment has a unique collection of enzymes that work to modify protein cargo. Proteins are delivered from the ER to the cis face using COPII-coated vesicles. Cargo then progress toward the trans face in COPI-coated vesicles. This model proposes that COPI vesicles move in two directions: anterograde vesicles carry secretory proteins, while retrograde vesicles recycle Golgi-specific trafficking proteins.
Transport vesicles can move molecules between locations inside the cell, e.g., proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.

Organelle

organellescell organellescell organelle
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
Some (such as the nucleus and golgi apparatus) are typically solitary, while others (such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, peroxisomes and lysosomes) can be numerous (hundreds to thousands).

Endosome

endosomesendosomalmultivesicular bodies
The TGN is usually positioned adjacent to the stack, but can also be separate from it. The TGN may act as an early endosome in yeast and plants.
It is a compartment of the endocytic membrane transport pathway originating from the trans Golgi membrane.

Lysosome

lysosomallysosomeslysosomal enzymes
The CGN is the first cisternal structure, and the TGN is the final, from which proteins are packaged into vesicles destined to lysosomes, secretory vesicles, or the cell surface. For example, the Golgi apparatus adds a mannose-6-phosphate label to proteins destined for lysosomes.
The enzymes are imported from the Golgi apparatus in small vesicles, which fuse with larger acidic vesicles.

Microtubule

microtubulesmicrotubularmicrotubule polymerization
Localization and tubular connections of the Golgi apparatus are dependent on microtubules.
Moreover, the polarity of microtubules is acted upon by motor proteins, which organize many components of the cell, including the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus.

Endoplasmic reticulum

rough endoplasmic reticulumERsmooth endoplasmic reticulum
The common feature among Golgi is that they are adjacent to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit sites.
Although there is no continuous membrane between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus, membrane-bound transport vesicles shuttle proteins between these two compartments.

Cytoplasm

cytoplasmiccytosolicintracytoplasmic
Part of the endomembrane system in the cytoplasm, the Golgi apparatus packages proteins into membrane-bound vesicles inside the cell before the vesicles are sent to their destination.
Some major organelles that are suspended in the cytosol are the mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, vacuoles, lysosomes, and in plant cells, chloroplasts.

Plasma cell

plasma cellsplasmablastplasma B cell
The Golgi apparatus tends to be larger and more numerous in cells that synthesize and secrete large amounts of substances; for example, the antibody-secreting plasma B cells of the immune system have prominent Golgi complexes.
Their cytoplasm also contains a pale zone that on electron microscopy contains an extensive Golgi apparatus and centrioles ( EM picture).

Glycosylation

glycosylatedC-mannosylationglycosylate
It is of particular importance in processing proteins for secretion, containing a set of glycosylation enzymes that attach various sugar monomers to proteins as the proteins move through the apparatus.
The process is non-templated (unlike DNA transcription or protein translation); instead, the cell relies on segregating enzymes into different cellular compartments (e.g., endoplasmic reticulum, cisternae in Golgi apparatus). Therefore, glycosylation is a site-specific modification.

Lumen (anatomy)

lumenluminallumina
This feature is in contrast to the ER, which has soluble proteins and enzymes in its lumen.
*thylakoid, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosome, mitochondrion, or microtubule

Enzyme

enzymologyenzymesenzymatic
It is of particular importance in processing proteins for secretion, containing a set of glycosylation enzymes that attach various sugar monomers to proteins as the proteins move through the apparatus. In this model, the Golgi is viewed as a set of stable compartments that work together. Each compartment has a unique collection of enzymes that work to modify protein cargo. Proteins are delivered from the ER to the cis face using COPII-coated vesicles. Cargo then progress toward the trans face in COPI-coated vesicles. This model proposes that COPI vesicles move in two directions: anterograde vesicles carry secretory proteins, while retrograde vesicles recycle Golgi-specific trafficking proteins.
For example, fatty acids are synthesized by one set of enzymes in the cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi and used by a different set of enzymes as a source of energy in the mitochondrion, through β-oxidation.

Actin

alpha-actinF-actinthin filament
Organization of the plant Golgi depends on actin cables and not microtubules.
The most notable proteins associated with the actin cytoskeleton in plants include: villin, which belongs to the same family as gelsolin/severin and is able to cut microfilaments and bind actin monomers in the presence of calcium cations; fimbrin, which is able to recognize and unite actin monomers and which is involved in the formation of networks (by a different regulation process from that of animals and yeasts); formins, which are able to act as an F-actin polymerization nucleating agent; myosin, a typical molecular motor that is specific to eukaryotes and which in Arabidopsis thaliana is coded for by 17 genes in two distinct classes; CHUP1, which can bind actin and is implicated in the spatial distribution of chloroplasts in the cell; KAM1/MUR3 that define the morphology of the Golgi apparatus as well as the composition of xyloglucans in the cell wall; NtWLIM1, which facilitates the emergence of actin cell structures; and ERD10, which is involved in the association of organelles within membranes and microfilaments and which seems to play a role that is involved in an organism's reaction to stress.

Oligosaccharide

oligosaccharidesoligo-complex carbohydrates
For example, phosphorylation of oligosaccharides on lysosomal proteins occurs in the early CGN.
O-linked glycosylation occurs in the golgi apparatus, where monosaccharide units are added to a complete polypeptide chain.

Signal peptide

signal sequencetransit peptidetargeting sequence
Protein modifications may form a signal sequence that determines the final destination of the protein.
These proteins include those that reside either inside certain organelles (the endoplasmic reticulum, golgi or endosomes), secreted from the cell, or inserted into most cellular membranes.

Glycosaminoglycan

glycosaminoglycansmucopolysaccharidesmucopolysaccharide
Enzymes in the Golgi append proteins to glycosaminoglycans, thus creating proteoglycans.
Heparin/heparan sulfate (HSGAGs) and chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CSGAGs) are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus, where protein cores made in the rough endoplasmic reticulum are posttranslationally modified with O-linked glycosylations by glycosyltransferases forming proteoglycans.

Mannose 6-phosphate

mannose-6-phosphate
For example, the Golgi apparatus adds a mannose-6-phosphate label to proteins destined for lysosomes.
The M6P tag is added to such proteins in the cis-Golgi apparatus.

Exocytosis

releaseneurotransmitter releaseexocytotic
These cargo proteins are modified and destined for secretion via exocytosis or for use in the cell.
For example, vesicles that transport proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the cell surface area, will be likely to use motor proteins and a cytoskeletal track to get closer to their target.

COPI

coat proteinER to Golgi vesicle shuttlingsee here.
In this model, the Golgi is viewed as a set of stable compartments that work together. Each compartment has a unique collection of enzymes that work to modify protein cargo. Proteins are delivered from the ER to the cis face using COPII-coated vesicles. Cargo then progress toward the trans face in COPI-coated vesicles. This model proposes that COPI vesicles move in two directions: anterograde vesicles carry secretory proteins, while retrograde vesicles recycle Golgi-specific trafficking proteins.
COPI is a coatomer, a protein complex that coats vesicles transporting proteins from the cis end of the Golgi complex back to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they were originally synthesized, and between Golgi compartments.

Secretion

secretedsecretesecretory pathway
It is of particular importance in processing proteins for secretion, containing a set of glycosylation enzymes that attach various sugar monomers to proteins as the proteins move through the apparatus.
The vesicles containing the properly folded proteins then enter the Golgi apparatus.

COPII

COPII vesicles
In this model, the Golgi is viewed as a set of stable compartments that work together. Each compartment has a unique collection of enzymes that work to modify protein cargo. Proteins are delivered from the ER to the cis face using COPII-coated vesicles. Cargo then progress toward the trans face in COPI-coated vesicles. This model proposes that COPI vesicles move in two directions: anterograde vesicles carry secretory proteins, while retrograde vesicles recycle Golgi-specific trafficking proteins.
COPII is a coatomer, a type of vesicle coat protein that transports proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.