Gonorrhea

Gonococcal lesion on the skin
An infant with gonorrhea of the eyes
Neisseria gonorrhoeae in pus from a case of gonorrhoea in a man (Gram stain)
Penicillin entered mass production in 1944 and revolutionized the treatment of several venereal diseases.
Gonorrhea rates, United States, 1941–2007
During World War II, the U.S. government used posters to warn military personnel about the dangers of gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted infections.

Sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

- Gonorrhea
Gonococcal lesion on the skin

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A rolled-up condom

Condom

Sheath-shaped barrier device used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection .

Sheath-shaped barrier device used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection .

A rolled-up condom
A giant replica of a condom on the Obelisk of Buenos Aires, Argentina, part of an awareness campaign for the 2005 World AIDS Day
Condom fitting in size over a penis made of silicone
Illustrations showing how to put on a condom
A female condom
An unrolled latex condom
A ribbed condom
A page from De Morbo Gallico (On the French Disease), Gabriele Falloppio's treatise on syphilis. Published in 1564, it describes what is possibly the first use of condoms.
A condom made from animal intestine circa 1900
Giacomo Casanova tests his condom for holes by inflating it
An old-fashioned condom package
During World War I, the U.S. military was the only one that did not promote condom use. Posters such as these were intended to promote abstinence.
Condom (and manual) from 1813
Condom tin, "3 Merry Widows" brand, circa 1930.
A condom given out by NYC Health Department during the Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 celebrations.
Used condom on a street

Their use greatly decreases the risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, hepatitis B, and HIV/AIDS.

Drawing showing the usual sites of infection in pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system, namely the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and inside of the pelvis.

Infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system, namely the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and inside of the pelvis.

Drawing showing the usual sites of infection in pelvic inflammatory disease
Illustration of pelvic inflammatory disease
Mucopurulent cervical discharge seen on a cotton bud
Micrograph of salpingitis – a component of pelvic inflammatory disease. H&E stain.

Without treatment, about 10 percent of those with a chlamydial infection and 40 percent of those with a gonorrhea infection will develop PID.

Pap smear showing C. trachomatis (H&E stain)

Chlamydia

Sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.

Sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.

Pap smear showing C. trachomatis (H&E stain)
Inflammation of the cervix from chlamydia infection characterized by mucopurulent cervical discharge, redness, and inflammation
A white, cloudy or watery discharge may emerge from the tip of the penis.
Conjunctivitis due to chlamydia
Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion bodies (brown) in a McCoy cell culture

Gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV should be tested for in those who have been infected.

A vial of ceftriaxone, manufactured and sold in Russia

Ceftriaxone

Third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic used for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

Third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic used for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

A vial of ceftriaxone, manufactured and sold in Russia

These include middle ear infections, endocarditis, meningitis, pneumonia, bone and joint infections, intra-abdominal infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, gonorrhea, and pelvic inflammatory disease.

Position of the prostate

Prostate cancer

Cancer of the prostate.

Cancer of the prostate.

Position of the prostate
A diagram of prostate cancer pressing on the urethra, which can cause symptoms
Prostate cancer
Prostate cancer that has metastasized to the lymph nodes
Prostate cancer that has metastasized to the bone
If already having grown large, a prostate cancer may first be detected on CT scan.
Prostate needle biopsy
Pie chart of histopathologic subdiagnoses of prostate cancer.
Micrograph showing a prostate cancer (conventional adenocarcinoma) with perineural invasion. H&E stain.
Diagram showing T1-3 stages of prostate cancer.
Micrograph of prostate adenocarcinoma, acinar type, the most common type of prostate cancer. Needle biopsy, H&E stain
New cases and deaths from prostate cancer in the United States per 100,000 males between 1975 and 2014
Sclerosis of the bones of the thoracic spine due to prostate cancer metastases (CT image)
Sclerosis of the bones of the thoracic spine due to prostate cancer metastases (CT image)
Sclerosis of the bones of the pelvis due to prostate cancer metastases

An association with gonorrhea has been found, although no reason for this relationship has been identified.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Species of Gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879.

Species of Gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879.

A Gram stain of a urethral exudate showing typical intracellular Gram-negative diplococci, which is diagnostic for gonococcal urethritis
Thayer–Martin agar is selective for growth of Neisseria species. Further testing (oxidase, Gram stain, carbohydrate use) is needed to differentiate N. gonorrhoeae from N. meningitidis.
Carbohydrate utilization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: N. gonorrhoeae will oxidise glucose, not maltose, sucrose, or lactose; N. meningitidis ferments glucose and maltose.
The growth of N. gonorrhoeae colonies on New York City agar, a specialized and selective medium for gonococci

It causes the sexually transmitted genitourinary infection gonorrhea as well as other forms of gonococcal disease including disseminated gonococcemia, septic arthritis, and gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum.

Acute epididymitis with abundant fibrinopurulent exudate in the tubules.

Epididymitis

Medical condition characterized by inflammation of the epididymis, a curved structure at the back of the testicle.

Medical condition characterized by inflammation of the epididymis, a curved structure at the back of the testicle.

Acute epididymitis with abundant fibrinopurulent exudate in the tubules.
Adult human testicle with epididymis: A. Head of epididymis, B. Body of epididymis, C. Tail of epididymis, and D. Vas deferens
Doppler ultrasound of epididymitis, seen as a substantial increase in blood flow in the left epididymis (top image), while it is normal in the right (bottom image). The thickness of the epididymis (between yellow crosses) is only slightly increased.
Histopathology image of inflamed epididymis and testis
Scrotal ultrasound showing calcifications and cysts in a case of chronic epididymis.

In those who are young and sexually active gonorrhea and chlamydia are frequently the underlying cause.

The urethra transports urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. This image shows (a) a female urethra and (b) a male urethra.

Urethra

Tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body of both females and males.

Tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body of both females and males.

The urethra transports urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. This image shows (a) a female urethra and (b) a male urethra.
The human male urethra laid open on its anterior (upper) surface
Micrograph of urethral cancer (urothelial cell carcinoma), a rare problem of the urethra.
Position of the urethra in males
Transverse section of the penis
Male urethral opening on glans penis
Female urethral opening within vulval vestibule
Muscles of the female perineum
Urethra. Deep dissection. Serial cross section.
Diagram which depicts the membranous urethra and the spongy urethra of a male

It is most often due to a sexually transmitted infection such as gonorrhoea or chlamydia, and less commonly due to other bacteria such as ureaplasma or mycoplasma; trichomonas vaginalis; or the viruses herpes simplex virus and adenovirus.

An eye with viral conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis

Inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid.

Inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid.

An eye with viral conjunctivitis
Bloodshot eyes.
Viral conjunctivitis
An eye with allergic conjunctivitis showing conjunctival edema
An eye with bacterial conjunctivitis
Typical membranous conjunctivitis
An eye with chlamydial conjunctivitis
The pocedure of conjunctival swabs.

People who wear contact lenses and those whose infection is caused by gonorrhea or chlamydia should be treated.

Normal vagina and cervix during a medical speculum exam demonstrating IUD strings at the opening of the cervix and normal milky white vaginal discharge on the vaginal walls, cervix, and pooled in vaginal fornix.

Vaginal discharge

Mixture of liquid, cells, and bacteria that lubricate and protect the vagina.

Mixture of liquid, cells, and bacteria that lubricate and protect the vagina.

Normal vagina and cervix during a medical speculum exam demonstrating IUD strings at the opening of the cervix and normal milky white vaginal discharge on the vaginal walls, cervix, and pooled in vaginal fornix.
Stretchy discharge around ovulation.
Thick discharge around menstruation.
thick, white, and clumpy.

32% of patients were found to have sexually transmitted infections including Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Trichomonas, or Genital Herpes.