World administrative levels
Map of European nations coloured by percentage of vote governing party got in last election as of 2022

System or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state.

- Government

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Administration (government)

World administrative levels

The term administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction.


All the processes of interactions be they through the laws, norms, power or language of an organized society over a social system .

Iustitia ("Lady Justice") is a symbolic personification of the coercive power of a tribunal: a sword representing state authority, scales representing an objective standard and a blindfold indicating that justice should be impartial.

It is done by the government of a state, by a market, or by a network.

State (polity)

Centralized political organization that imposes and enforces rules over a population within a territory.

The frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan
Painting of Roman Senators encircling Julius Caesar
IWW poster "Pyramid of Capitalist System" (c. 1911), depicting an anti-capitalist perspective on statist/capitalist social structures

A state is not synonymous with a government, as stateless governments like the Haudenosaunee Confederacy exist.


Richard I of England being anointed during his coronation in Westminster Abbey, from a 13th-century chronicle.
The Weld-Blundell Prism, inscribed with the Sumerian King List
Map of monarchies and republics in 1648
King George III of the United Kingdom, Portrait by Allan Ramsay, 1762.
King Salman of Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarch.
Postcard of ruling monarchs, taken in 1909
 between February (accession of King Manuel II of Portugal) and November (death of Guangxu Emperor)
Tewodros II, Emperor of Ethiopia.
King Leopold I, an elected founder of the hereditary monarchy of Belgium
Pope Francis, Sovereign of the Vatican City State

A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch, is head of state for life or until abdication.

Liberal democracy

The Eduskunta, the parliament of Finland as the Grand Duchy of Finland, had universal suffrage in 1906. Several nations and territories can present arguments for being the first with universal suffrage.
K. J. Ståhlberg (1865–1952), the first President of the Republic of Finland, defined Finland's anchoring as a country defending liberal democracy. Ståhlberg at his office in 1919.
Map reflecting the findings of Freedom House's 2022 survey concerning the state of world freedom in 2021.
Percentage of countries in each category from Freedom House's 1973 through 2021 reports

Liberal democracy is the combination of a liberal political ideology that operates under an indirect democratic form of government.

Comparative politics

Field in political science characterized either by the use of the comparative method or other empirical methods to explore politics both within and between countries.

Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge

When applied to specific fields of study, comparative politics may be referred to by other names, such as comparative government (the comparative study of forms of government).

Political system

In political science, a political system means the type of political organization that can be recognized, observed or otherwise declared by a state.

Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge

It defines the process for making official government decisions.


World administrative levels

Aristocracy is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class, the aristocrats.


Identifiable political entity – a group of people with a collective identity, who are organized by some form of institutionalized social relations, and have a capacity to mobilize resources.

Frontispiece of Leviathan, 1651

Polities do not need to be in control of any geographic areas, as not all political entities and governments have controlled the resources of one fixed geographic area.


Aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.

Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)
Constitution of the Kingdom of Naples in 1848.
Detail from Hammurabi's stele shows him receiving the laws of Babylon from the seated sun deity.
Diagram illustrating the classification of constitutions by Aristotle.
Third volume of the compilation of Catalan Constitutions of 1585
The Cossack Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk, 1710.
A painting depicting George Washington at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution
Constitution of May 3, 1791 (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). Polish King Stanisław August (left, in regal ermine-trimmed cloak), enters St. John's Cathedral, where Sejm deputies will swear to uphold the new Constitution; in background, Warsaw's Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted.
Presidential copy of the Russian Constitution.
Magna Carta
United States Constitution

After that, many governments ruled by special codes of written laws.