Government-granted monopoly

franchisemonopolygovernment-granted monopoliesfranchisedfranchisesregulated monopoliesbus franchiseCrown monopoliesexclusivefranchise monopoly
In economics, a government-granted monopoly (also called a "de jure monopoly") and the monopoly to be served under government is a form of coercive monopoly by which a government grants exclusive privilege to a private individual or firm to be the sole provider of a good or service; potential competitors are excluded from the market by law, regulation, or other mechanisms of government enforcement.wikipedia
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Free market

free-marketfree enterprisefree markets
Government-granted monopolies may be opposed by those who would prefer free markets as well as by those who would prefer to replace private corporations with public ownership.
The laissez-faire principle expresses a preference for an absence of non-market pressures on prices and wages such as those from discriminatory government taxes, subsidies, tariffs, regulations of purely private behavior, or government-granted or coercive monopolies.

Coercive monopoly

coercive monopoliesTrade Coercioncoercive
In economics, a government-granted monopoly (also called a "de jure monopoly") and the monopoly to be served under government is a form of coercive monopoly by which a government grants exclusive privilege to a private individual or firm to be the sole provider of a good or service; potential competitors are excluded from the market by law, regulation, or other mechanisms of government enforcement.
For example, claims of natural monopoly are often used as justification for government intervening to establish a statutory monopoly (government monopoly or government-granted monopoly) where competition is outlawed, under the claim that multiple firms providing a good or service entails more collective costs to an economy than that which would be the case if a single firm provided a good or service.

Legal monopoly

monopolyroyal monopolystatutory monopoly
A statutory monopoly may take the form of a government monopoly where the state owns the particular means of production or government-granted monopoly where a private interest is protected from competition such as being granted exclusive rights to offer a particular service in a specific region (e.g. patented inventions) while agreeing to have their policies and prices regulated.

Monopoly

monopoliesmonopolisticmonopolist
A government-granted monopoly or legal monopoly, by contrast, is sanctioned by the state, often to provide an incentive to invest in a risky venture or enrich a domestic interest group.

State monopoly

government monopolystate monopoliesmonopoly
Amongst forms of coercive monopoly it is distinguished from government monopoly or state monopoly (in which government agencies hold the legally enforced monopoly rather than private individuals or firms) and from government-sponsored cartels (in which the government forces several independent producers to partially coordinate their decisions through a centralized organization).
It is usually distinguished from a government-granted monopoly, where the government grants a monopoly to a private individual or company.

Economics

economiceconomisteconomic theory
In economics, a government-granted monopoly (also called a "de jure monopoly") and the monopoly to be served under government is a form of coercive monopoly by which a government grants exclusive privilege to a private individual or firm to be the sole provider of a good or service; potential competitors are excluded from the market by law, regulation, or other mechanisms of government enforcement.

Law

legallawslegal theory
In economics, a government-granted monopoly (also called a "de jure monopoly") and the monopoly to be served under government is a form of coercive monopoly by which a government grants exclusive privilege to a private individual or firm to be the sole provider of a good or service; potential competitors are excluded from the market by law, regulation, or other mechanisms of government enforcement.

Regulation

regulationsregulatorygovernment regulation
In economics, a government-granted monopoly (also called a "de jure monopoly") and the monopoly to be served under government is a form of coercive monopoly by which a government grants exclusive privilege to a private individual or firm to be the sole provider of a good or service; potential competitors are excluded from the market by law, regulation, or other mechanisms of government enforcement.

Corporation

corporatecorporationsincorporated
Opponents often criticize them as political favors to corporations.

State ownership

state-ownedpublic ownershipstate owned
Government-granted monopolies may be opposed by those who would prefer free markets as well as by those who would prefer to replace private corporations with public ownership.

Mercantilism

mercantilistmercantilemercantilists
Under mercantilist economic systems, European governments with colonial interests often granted large and extremely lucrative monopolies to companies trading in particular regions, such as the Dutch East India Company.

Dutch East India Company

VOCDutch East Indies CompanyDutch
Under mercantilist economic systems, European governments with colonial interests often granted large and extremely lucrative monopolies to companies trading in particular regions, such as the Dutch East India Company.

Road

roadsroad constructionroad building
Today, government-granted monopolies may be found in public utility services such as public roads, mail, water supply, and electric power, as well as certain specialized and highly regulated fields such as education and gambling.

Mail

postal servicepostal servicespostal
Today, government-granted monopolies may be found in public utility services such as public roads, mail, water supply, and electric power, as well as certain specialized and highly regulated fields such as education and gambling.

Water supply

waterworkswaterwater supplies
Today, government-granted monopolies may be found in public utility services such as public roads, mail, water supply, and electric power, as well as certain specialized and highly regulated fields such as education and gambling.

Electric power

powerelectrical powerelectrical
Today, government-granted monopolies may be found in public utility services such as public roads, mail, water supply, and electric power, as well as certain specialized and highly regulated fields such as education and gambling.

Education

teachingeducationaleducationist
Today, government-granted monopolies may be found in public utility services such as public roads, mail, water supply, and electric power, as well as certain specialized and highly regulated fields such as education and gambling.

Gambling

gamblerbettinggaming
Today, government-granted monopolies may be found in public utility services such as public roads, mail, water supply, and electric power, as well as certain specialized and highly regulated fields such as education and gambling.

Petroleum

crude oiloilcrude
In many countries lucrative natural resources industries, especially the petroleum industry, are controlled by government-granted monopolies.

Public transport

public transportationpublic transitmass transit
Franchises granted by governments to operate public transit through public roads are another example.

Exclusive right

franchiseexclusive rightsexclusive
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state or national government to an inventor or his/her assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for a public disclosure of an invention.

State (polity)

statestatesthe state
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state or national government to an inventor or his/her assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for a public disclosure of an invention.

Term of patent

termpatent termexpired
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state or national government to an inventor or his/her assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for a public disclosure of an invention.

Invention

inventorinventionsinventors
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state or national government to an inventor or his/her assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for a public disclosure of an invention.

Patent claim

claimclaimspatent claims
Typically, however, a patent application must include one or more claims defining the invention which must be new, inventive, and useful or industrially applicable.