Governor-general

Governor Generalgovernors-generalgovernors generalGeneral-GovernorGeneral GovernorAustro-Hungarian Governor-general in SerbiaGeneral Governorshipgouverneur généralGovernor General of CanadaRepresentative of the Crown
Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm as a viceroy.wikipedia
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Viceroy

viceregalvice-regalnamestnik
Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm as a viceroy.
The term has occasionally been applied to the governors-general of the Commonwealth realms, who are viceregal representatives of the monarch.

Governor General of Canada

Governor GeneralGovernor-General of CanadaGovernor-General
Rare and controversial exceptions occurred in 1926, when Canadian Governor General the Viscount Byng of Vimy refused Prime Minister Mackenzie King's request for a dissolution of parliament; in 1953 and 1954 when the Governor-General of Pakistan, Ghulam Mohammad, staged a constitutional coup against the Prime Minister and then the Constituent Assembly; and in 1975, when the Governor-General of Australia, Sir John Kerr, dismissed the Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam (to name a few).
The Queen, on the advice of her Canadian prime minister, appoints a governor general to carry out most of constitutional and ceremonial duties.

Reserve power

reserve powersdiscretionary powersdiscretionary power
Today, therefore, in former British colonies which are now independent Commonwealth realms, the governor-general is constitutionally the representative of the monarch in his or her state and may exercise the reserve powers of the monarch according to their own constitutional authority.
Within the Dominions, until the 1920s, most reserve powers were exercised by a governor-general on the advice of either the local or the British government, though the latter took precedence.

Governor-General of the Irish Free State

Governor-GeneralGovernor-General of IrelandGovernor General
The Governor-General of the Irish Free State resided in the then Viceregal Lodge in Phoenix Park, Dublin, but the government of Éamon de Valera sought to downgrade the office and the last governor-general, Domhnall Ua Buachalla, did not reside there.
By convention, the office was largely ceremonial.

Governor

gubernatorialgovernorsMilitary Governor
Another non-federal state, Newfoundland, was a Dominion for 16 years with the King's representative retaining the title of governor throughout this time.
The Territories of Australia other than the ACT have Administrators instead of governors, who are appointed formally by the Governor-general.

Constitutional convention (political custom)

constitutional conventionconventionconstitutional conventions
Except in rare cases (example, a constitutional crisis), the governor-general usually acts in accordance with constitutional convention and upon the advice of the national prime minister (who is Head of the nation's Government).

Commonwealth realm

Commonwealth realmsrealmsCommonwealth
Today, therefore, in former British colonies which are now independent Commonwealth realms, the governor-general is constitutionally the representative of the monarch in his or her state and may exercise the reserve powers of the monarch according to their own constitutional authority. Since the 1950s, the title governor-general has been given to all representatives of the sovereign in independent Commonwealth realms.
The Queen appoints viceroys to perform most of the royal constitutional and ceremonial duties on her behalf in the other realms: in each, a governor-general as her personal national representative, as well as a governor as her representative in each of the Australian states.

Governor-General of Tuvalu

Governor-GeneralGovernor GeneralGovernor General of Tuvalu
The Governor-General of Tuvalu is the representative of the Tuvaluan monarch (currently Queen Elizabeth II) and performs the duties of the Queen in her absence.

Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Governor-GeneralGovernor GeneralSaint Vincent and the Grenadines
The office of Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines was created in 1979 when the islands gained independence as a Commonwealth realm.

Governor-General of Jamaica

Governor-GeneralGovernor General of JamaicaGovernor General
Both the monarch and the Governor-General hold much power, but rarely exercise it, usually only in emergencies and, in some cases, war.

Royal assent

assentassentedassented to
The governor-general could be instructed by the colonial secretary on the exercise of some of his functions and duties, such as the use or withholding of the Royal Assent from legislation; history shows many examples of governors-general using their prerogative and executive powers.
In Commonwealth realms other than the UK, royal assent is granted or withheld either by the realm's sovereign or, more frequently, by the representative of the sovereign, the governor-general.

Governor-General of India

Viceroy of IndiaGovernor-GeneralViceroy
The office was created in 1773, with the title of governor-general of the Presidency of Fort William.

Solomon Islands

SolomonsSolomon IslandSolomon
In the Solomon Islands, the scroll was replaced with a two-headed frigate bird motif, while in Fiji, the former Governor General's flag featured a whale's tooth.
The police force is headed by a commissioner, appointed by the governor general and responsible to the Minister of Police, National Security & Correctional Services.

Balfour Declaration of 1926

Balfour DeclarationBalfour Declaration 1926Balfour Declaration (1926)
Following the Imperial Conference, and subsequent issuing of the Balfour Declaration in 1926, the role and responsibilities of the governor-general began to shift, reflecting the increased independence of the Dominions (which were in 1952 renamed Realms; a term which includes the UK itself).
It also recommended that the governors-general, the representatives of the King who acted for the Crown as de facto head of state in each dominion, should no longer also serve automatically as the representative of the British government in diplomatic relations between the countries.

Clifford Dupont

Clifford Walter Dupont
Smith attempted to have Dupont named as Governor-General in place of the British-appointed Governor, Humphrey Gibbs, but failing this instead made him Officer Administering the Government.

Excellency

His ExcellencyYour ExcellencyHer Excellency
Governors-general are accorded the style of His/Her Excellency.

Governor-General of Barbados

Governor-GeneralGovernor GeneralActing Governor-General of Barbados
Since the settlement of Barbados by the British, Barbados has had 68 Governors and subsequently 8 Governors-General.

Governor-General of Solomon Islands

Governor-General of the Solomon IslandsGovernor-GeneralGovernor General
The Governors-General of the majority of Commonwealth realms are nominated by the Prime Minister of each realm and appointed by the Queen but in Solomon Islands, the Governor-General is nominated by the National Parliament by vote and appointed by the Queen.

William Lyon Mackenzie King

Mackenzie KingKingW.L. Mackenzie King
Rare and controversial exceptions occurred in 1926, when Canadian Governor General the Viscount Byng of Vimy refused Prime Minister Mackenzie King's request for a dissolution of parliament; in 1953 and 1954 when the Governor-General of Pakistan, Ghulam Mohammad, staged a constitutional coup against the Prime Minister and then the Constituent Assembly; and in 1975, when the Governor-General of Australia, Sir John Kerr, dismissed the Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam (to name a few).
Others, also basing their claims on passages of his diaries, have suggested that King was in love with Lord Tweedsmuir, whom he had chosen for appointment as Governor General in 1935.

Monarchy of New Zealand

Queen of New ZealandMonarchKing of the British Dominions Beyond the Seas
The monarch of these countries (Elizabeth II) is in law Queen of Canada, Queen of Australia, and Queen of New Zealand and only acts on the advice of the ministers in each country and is in no way influenced by the British government.
The governor-general of New Zealand, as with all the other governors-general of the empire, became the direct representative of the monarch in person, rather than a diplomatic channel between the New Zealand and British governments.

French Equatorial Africa

Equatorial AfricaCentral AfricaFrench Central Africa
The Governor-General was based in Brazzaville with deputies in each territory.

Ian Smith

Ian Douglas SmithSmithSmith administration
In December 1965, Smith, attempting to assert the rights he claimed as Her Majesty's Rhodesian prime minister, wrote a letter to Elizabeth asking her to appoint Dupont as Governor-General of Rhodesia.

Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence

Unilateral Declaration of IndependenceUDIunilaterally declared independence
The new constitution created the concept of allegiance to the "Constitution of Rhodesia," and introduced the post of Officer Administering the Government, a viceregal figure empowered to sign passed legislation into law on behalf of the monarch if she did not appoint a Governor-General.

High commissioner

High CommissionCommissioner-GeneralHigh Commissioners
These concepts were entrenched in legislation with the enactment of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, and governmental relations with the United Kingdom were placed in the hands of a British High Commissioner in each country.