Grace Hopper

Grace Murray HopperHopper, GraceAdmiral Grace HopperDr. Grace Murray HopperGrace M. Hoppernano-secondsRear Admiral Grace HopperRear Admiral Grace M. Hopper, Ph.D.
Grace Brewster Murray Hopper ( December 9, 1906 – January 1, 1992) was an American computer scientist and United States Navy rear admiral.wikipedia
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Picture clauseCOBOL-85Named condition
She popularized the idea of machine-independent programming languages, which led to the development of COBOL, an early high-level programming language still in use today.
COBOL was designed in 1959 by CODASYL and was partly based on previous programming language design work by Grace Hopper, commonly referred to as "the (grand)mother of COBOL".

Grace Hopper College

Calhoun CollegeHopper CollegeCalhoun College (Yale University), Connecticut
A college at Yale University was renamed in her honor.
It was originally named Calhoun College after US Vice President John C. Calhoun, but renamed in 2017 in honor of computer scientist Grace Murray Hopper.

Howard H. Aiken

Howard AikenAiken, HowardHoward Aitken
Hopper began her computing career in 1944 when she worked on the Harvard Mark I team led by Howard H. Aiken.
Richard Milton Bloch, Robert Campbell and Grace Hopper joined the project later as programmers.

Harvard Mark I

Mark IAutomatic Sequence Controlled CalculatorIBM ASCC
One of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I computer, she was a pioneer of computer programming who invented one of the first linkers.
Aiken considered the elaborate casing to be a waste of resources, since computing power was in high demand during the war and the funds ($50,000 or more according to Grace Hopper) could have been used to build additional computer equipment.


as previously notedFLOWMATIC
In 1954, Eckert–Mauchly chose Hopper to lead their department for automatic programming, and she led the release of some of the first compiled languages like FLOW-MATIC. In 1954 Hopper was named the company's first director of automatic programming, and her department released some of the first compiler-based programming languages, including MATH-MATIC and FLOW-MATIC.
It was developed for the UNIVAC I at Remington Rand under Grace Hopper from 1955 to 1959, and helped shape the development of COBOL.

A-0 System

A-0A-0 programming languageA-2
By 1952, Hopper had finished her program linker (originally called a compiler), which was written for the A-0 System.
The A-0 system (Arithmetic Language version 0), written by Grace Murray Hopper in 1951 and 1952 for the UNIVAC I, was an early compiler related tool developed for electronic computers.

Yale University

YaleYale CollegeUniversity of Yale
A college at Yale University was renamed in her honor. Prior to joining the Navy, Hopper earned a Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale University and was a professor of mathematics at Vassar College.
Despite this apparently conclusive reasoning, Salovey announced that Calhoun College would be renamed for groundbreaking computer scientist Grace Murray Hopper in February 2017.

Presidential Medal of Freedom

Medal of FreedomCongressional Medal of FreedomUnited States Medal of Freedom
On November 22, 2016, she was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Barack Obama.
It may also be awarded posthumously (after the death of the recipient); examples (in chronological order) include John Wayne, John F. Kennedy, Pope John XXIII, Lyndon Johnson, Paul "Bear" Bryant, Thurgood Marshall, Cesar Chavez, Roberto Clemente, Jack Kemp, Harvey Milk, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, Michael Schwerner, Elouise Cobell, Grace Hopper, Antonin Scalia, Elvis Presley and Babe Ruth.

Vassar College

VassarJames Monroe TaylorVassar Brewers
Prior to joining the Navy, Hopper earned a Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale University and was a professor of mathematics at Vassar College.
Notable Vassar alumni include: notable feminist and Classics scholar Elizabeth Hazleton Haight (1894), their first graduate of African ancestry Anita Florence Hemmings (1897), notable education and prison reform advocate Julia Tutwiler, the first female Electrical Engineer Edith Clarke (1908), founder of the United Service Organizations (USO) Mary Ingraham (1908), artist Ruth Starr Rose (1910), poet Edna St. Vincent Millay (1917), computer pioneer Grace Hopper (1928), critic and novelist Mary McCarthy (1933), poet Elizabeth Bishop (1934), writer and journalist Frances Scott Fitzgerald (1942), physician Beatrix Hamburg (1944), astrophysicist Vera Rubin (1948), Art Historian Linda Nochlin (1951), member of FORTRAN development team Lois Haibt (1955), politician and activist Frances Farenthold, Zagat Survey co-founder Nina Zagat (1963), physician and National Institutes of Health director Bernadine P. Healy (1965), feminist and abortion rights activist Lucinda Cisler(1965), Nickelodeon President and Oxygen Media founder and CEO Geraldine Laybourne (1969), author and prosecutor Linda Fairstein (1969), Emmy award-winning executive producer of Masterpiece on PBS Rebecca Eaton (1969), three-time Academy Award winner actress Meryl Streep (1971), Pulitzer Prize-winning fiction writer Jane Smiley (1971), author and journalist Michael Wolff (1975), Neuroscientist and Director of Johns Hopkins Medicine Brain Science Institute Richard L. Huganir (1975), CBS News Chief White House Correspondent Chip Reid (1977), former World Bank CFO and Undersecretary of the Treasury for Domestic Finance Jeffrey Goldstein (1977), The New Yorker magazine science writer Michael Specter (1977), Cooper Union President Jamshed Bharucha (1978), MSNBC President Phil Griffin (1979), astrophysicist and MacArthur Award Fellow John Carlstrom (1981), President of Lawrence University of Wisconsin Mark Burstein (1984), actress Lisa Kudrow (1985), actress Hope Davis (1986), journalist Evan Wright (1988), ABC News Chief White House Correspondent Jonathan Karl (1990), physician and MacArthur Award Fellow Jeffrey Brenner (1990), writer-director Noah Baumbach (1991), film and television producer Jason Blum (1991), Flickr founder Caterina Fake (1991), Shine Limited CEO and Chairman Elisabeth Murdoch (1992), author Jon Fisher (1994), novelist Katherine Center (1994), novelist Joe Hill (1995), Emmy Award-winning comedy writer-producer Jessi Klein (1997), writer Jesse Ball (2000), Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and Wall Street Journal reporter Alexandra Berzon (2001), musician and songwriter Victoria Legrand (2003), screenwriter and director Jonás Cuarón (2005), winner of RuPaul's Drag Race Season 9 Sasha Velour (2009), Tony Award-nominated actress Lilli Cooper (2012), Tony Award-nominated actor Ethan Slater (2014), and runner-up of Big Brother 18 (UK) Raph Korine (2017).


In 1954 Hopper was named the company's first director of automatic programming, and her department released some of the first compiler-based programming languages, including MATH-MATIC and FLOW-MATIC.
MATH-MATIC was written beginning around 1955 by a team led by Charles Katz under the direction of Grace Hopper.

Programming language

programming languageslanguagedialect
She developed the implementation of standards for testing computer systems and components, most significantly for early programming languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL.
Another early programming language was devised by Grace Hopper in the US, called FLOW-MATIC.


In the early 1950s, the company was taken over by the Remington Rand corporation, and it was while she was working for them that her original compiler work was done.


The terms "bug" and "debugging" are popularly attributed to Admiral Grace Hopper in the 1940s.

Grace Murray Hopper Award

ACM Grace Murray Hopper AwardGrace Hopper AwardGrace Murray Hopper Award for Outstanding Young Computer Professionals
The Grace Murray Hopper Awards (named for computer pioneer RADM Grace Hopper) has been awarded by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) since 1971.

Harvard Mark II

Mark IIAiken Relay Calculator
Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper worked together to program and build the Mark II.

Øystein Ore

Ore, ØysteinOystein OreØ. Ore
In 1934, she earned a Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale under the direction of Øystein Ore.
As a teacher, Ore is notable for teaching mathematics to two doctoral students who would make contributions to science and mathematics, Grace Hopper, who would eventually become a United States rear admiral and computer scientist, who was a pioneer in the development of the first computers, and Marshall Hall, Jr., an American mathematician who did important research in group theory and combinatorics.

Wardlaw-Hartridge School

Hartridge SchoolWardlaw SchoolWardlaw Country Day School
For her preparatory school education, she attended the Hartridge School in Plainfield, New Jersey.


UNIVACUNIVAC 1UNIVAC I Overdrive, 1952 unofficial modification
In 1949, she joined the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation and was part of the team that developed the UNIVAC I computer.

Jean E. Sammet

Jean SammetSammet, Jean E.Sammet, J.E.
Among the members of the committee that worked on COBOL was Mount Holyoke College alumnus Jean E. Sammet.
This merger allowed Sammet access to the UNIVAC I computer and Grace Hopper.

Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society

DFBCSDistinguished FellowDistinguished Fellow at the British Computer Society (DFBCS)


Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency ServiceWAVEWoman's Naval Reserve
During the war in 1943, Hopper obtained a leave of absence from Vassar and was sworn into the United States Navy Reserve; she was one of many women who volunteered to serve in the WAVES.
One WAVE mathematician, Grace Hopper, was assigned to Harvard University to work on the computation project with the Mark I computer.

Brewster Academy

Brewster Acad.Brewster Academy (N.H.)Brewster Free Academy
The computers were part of a new lab dedicated to Grace Murray Hopper, whose family had a summer house in Wolfeboro.

Grace Murray Hopper Park

The park is named in honor of Grace Hopper, a computer scientist and naval officer.

Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing

Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing Conference
Her legacy was an inspiring factor in the creation of the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing.
The celebration, named after computer scientist Grace Hopper, is organized by the Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology and the Association for Computing Machinery.

National Medal of Technology and Innovation

National Medal of TechnologyNational Medals of TechnologyNational Medals of Technology and Innovation
In 1991, she received the National Medal of Technology.