Grade (slope)

gradegradientgradesgradientsslopesteepnesssteep gradesinclineslopespitch
The grade (also called slope, incline, gradient, mainfall, pitch or rise) of a physical feature, landform or constructed line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the horizontal.wikipedia
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Slope

gradientslopesgradients
It is a special case of the slope, where zero indicates horizontality.
The concept of slope applies directly to grades or gradients in geography and civil engineering.

Aqueduct (water supply)

aqueductaqueductsconduit
Grades are typically specified for new linear constructions (such as roads, landscape grading, roof pitches, railroads, aqueducts, and pedestrian or bicycle circulation routes).
The best example is the Yoda Ela or Jaya Ganga, an 87 km long water canal carrying excess water between two artificial reservoirs with a gradient of 10 to 20 cm per kilometer during the fifth century AD.

Cut (earthworks)

cuttingcutopen-cut
The lateral slopes of a highway geometry are sometimes called fills or cuts where these techniques have been used to create them.
Cuts are typically used in road, rail, and canal construction to reduce the length and grade of a route.

Bank engine

bankinghelper enginebanked
Steep gradients were concentrated in short sections of lines where it was convenient to employ assistant engines or cable haulage, such as the 1.2 km section from Euston to Camden Town.
A bank engine (United Kingdom/Australia) (colloquially a banker), banking engine, helper engine or pusher engine (North America) is a railway locomotive that temporarily assists a train that requires additional power or traction to climb a gradient (or bank).

Baldwin Street

Baldwin Street, DunedinGutbuster (race)
The steepest roads in the world are Baldwin Street in Dunedin, New Zealand, Ffordd Pen Llech in Harlech, Wales and Canton Avenue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
At its maximum, about 70 m from the top, the slope of Baldwin Street is about 1:2.86 (19° or 35%).

Cable railway

inclineincline railwayinclines
Steep gradients were concentrated in short sections of lines where it was convenient to employ assistant engines or cable haulage, such as the 1.2 km section from Euston to Camden Town.
The most common use for a cable railway is to move vehicles on a steeply graded line that is too steep for conventional locomotives to operate on - this form of cable railway is often called an incline or inclined plane.

Bank (geography)

leftrightbank
The grades or slopes of existing physical features such as canyons and hillsides, stream and river banks and beds are often described.
The grade of all these banks or shorelines can vary from vertical to a shallow slope.

Rack railway

Abt rack systemrackcog railway
Extremely steep gradients require the use of cables (such as the Scenic Railway at Katoomba Scenic World, Australia, with a maximum grade of 122% (52°), claimed to be the world's steepest passenger-carrying funicular ) or some kind of rack railway (such as the Pilatus railway in Switzerland, with a maximum grade of 48% (26°), claimed to be the world's steepest rack railway ) to help the train ascend or descend.
Most rack railways are mountain railways, although a few are transit railways or tramways built to overcome a steep gradient in an urban environment.

Pöstlingbergbahn

Pöstlingberg Railway
With a maximum grade of 11.6%, the Pöstlingbergbahn is one of the steepest adhesion railways in the world.

Track (rail transport)

trackrailroad trackstracks
Grades are typically specified for new linear constructions (such as roads, landscape grading, roof pitches, railroads, aqueducts, and pedestrian or bicycle circulation routes).
Vertical layout is the track layout on the vertical plane including the concepts such as crosslevel, cant and gradient.

Flåm Line

FlåmsbanaFlåmFlåm Railway
The maximum gradient is 5.5 percent (1:18).

Ferrovia Centrale Umbra

FCUTerni–Perugia–Sansepolcro
The main line has a maximum grade of 2%, reaching 6% on the branch between Perugia Sant'Anna and Perugia Ponte San Giovanni.

Saluda Grade

Saluda Line
Saluda Grade is the steepest standard-gauge mainline railway grade in the United States.

Foxfield Railway

Foxfield Light RailwayFoxfield Steam RailwayBank Top Colliery Line
At first, passengers were taken in converted trucks up the formidable 1:19 to 1:26 gradient out of the colliery site at Dilhorne, accompanied by a tank engine.

Cologne–Frankfurt high-speed rail line

Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail lineCologne–Frankfurt high-speed lineCologne-Frankfurt high-speed railway
The line's grades of up to four percent require trains with a high power-to-weight ratio which is currently only met by third-generation Intercity-Express trains.

Pilatus Railway

PilatusbahnPilatusPilatus rack railway
Extremely steep gradients require the use of cables (such as the Scenic Railway at Katoomba Scenic World, Australia, with a maximum grade of 122% (52°), claimed to be the world's steepest passenger-carrying funicular ) or some kind of rack railway (such as the Pilatus railway in Switzerland, with a maximum grade of 48% (26°), claimed to be the world's steepest rack railway ) to help the train ascend or descend.
The first project to build the line was proposed in 1873, suggesting a and 25% maximal gradient.

Nilgiri Mountain Railway

NMRMountain Railways of IndiaMountain Train in Ooty
Between Mettupalayam and Coonoor, the line uses the Abt rack and pinion system to climb the steep gradient.

Ecclesbourne Valley Railway

Wirksworth BranchEcclesbourne ValleyWyvernRail plc
Despite being a branch in itself, there is also a separate 1/2 mi branch operating from Platform 3 at Wirksworth Station up a 1 in 27 (3.27 %) gradient incline to (for the National Stone Centre and the High Peak Trail, respectively).

Portland Streetcar

PortlandPortland, OregonEastside Streetcar
When the line was extended to RiverPlace, the Vintage Trolley service continued to terminate at PSU, because of concerns that the steep incline on the new section could damage the cars' motors.

Embankment (earthworks)

embankmentembankmentsEmbankment (transportation)
The lateral slopes of a highway geometry are sometimes called fills or cuts where these techniques have been used to create them.

Cass Scenic Railroad State Park

Cass Scenic RailroadCass Scenic RailwayCass
Traveling on 11 mi of standard gauge track laid in 1901 by immigrant workers, the line traverses the steep grades of Back Allegheny Mountain.

Grading (earthworks)

gradinggradegraded
Grading in civil engineering and landscape architectural construction is the work of ensuring a level base, or one with a specified slope, for a construction work such as a foundation, the base course for a road or a railway, or landscape and garden improvements, or surface drainage.

List of steepest gradients on adhesion railways

Steepest gradients on adhesion railwaysas steep as 1 in 38steepest
The inclusion of steep gradients on railways avoids the expensive engineering works required to produce more gentle gradients.

Rudgwick railway station

Rudgwick
In those days, for example, an inspector insisted that Rudgwick railway station in West Sussex be regraded.
Yolland objected to the station being on a 1 in 80 gradient, which he considered dangerously steep as it might, in his opinion, result in trains calling at the station running away back down the slope.

Ruling gradient

ruling grade(ruling) gradientgrade
Ruling gradients limit the load that a locomotive can haul, including the weight of the locomotive itself.