Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of languagegrammatical structuregrammar frameworkgrammatical rulesdescriptive grammargrammatical systemsgrammatically correctlanguage structure
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.wikipedia
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Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Grammar is a system of rules which governs the production and use of utterances in a given language.

Phrase

phrasesphrasalword-group
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is synonymous with expression. In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy.

Phonetics

phoneticphoneticallyphonetician
The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes phonology, morphology, and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.
Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs.

Sentence clause structure

complex sentencesimple sentencecompound sentence
Alternatively, it may refer only to what is common to the grammars of all, or of the vast majority of English speakers (such as subject–verb–object word order in simple declarative sentences).
In grammar, sentence clause structure commonly known as sentence composition is the classification of sentences based on the number and kind of clauses in their syntactic structure.

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes phonology, morphology, and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.
The Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini (c. 4th century BC in Ancient India), is often cited as an example of a premodern work that approaches the sophistication of a modern syntactic theory (as works on grammar were written long before modern syntax came about).

Pragmatics

pragmaticpragmaticallylinguistic pragmatics
The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes phonology, morphology, and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.
Unlike semantics, which examines meaning that is conventional or "coded" in a given language, pragmatics studies how the transmission of meaning depends not only on structural and linguistic knowledge (e.g., grammar, lexicon, etc.) of the speaker and listener, but also on the context of the utterance, any pre-existing knowledge about those involved, the inferred intent of the speaker, and other factors.

Morphology (linguistics)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes phonology, morphology, and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.
While words, along with clitics, are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, in most languages, if not all, many words can be related to other words by rules that collectively describe the grammar for that language.

Tolkāppiyam

dated variouslyTolkāppiyam PorulatikaramTholkappiam
Tolkāppiyam, the earliest Tamil grammar, is mostly dated to before the 5th century AD. The Babylonians also made some early attempts at language description,
The Tholkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம், literally Paleo-literature) is a work on the grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil literature and linguistics.

Language acquisition

language learningfirst language acquisitionacquisition
The vast majority of the information in the grammar is – at least in the case of one's native language – acquired not by conscious study or instruction, but by observing other speakers.
Otherwise, they argue, it is extremely difficult to explain how children, within the first five years of life, routinely master the complex, largely tacit grammatical rules of their native language.

Verrius Flaccus

FlaccusMarcus Verrius Flaccus
Latin grammar developed by following Greek models from the 1st century BC, due to the work of authors such as Orbilius Pupillus, Remmius Palaemon, Marcus Valerius Probus, Verrius Flaccus, and Aemilius Asper.
Marcus Verrius Flaccus (c. 55 BCAD 20) was a Roman grammarian and teacher who flourished under Augustus and Tiberius.

Liberal arts education

liberal artsArtsliberal studies
Belonging to the trivium of the seven liberal arts, grammar was taught as a core discipline throughout the Middle Ages, following the influence of authors from Late Antiquity, such as Priscian.
Grammar, logic, and rhetoric were the core liberal arts (the trivium), while arithmetic, geometry, the theory of music, and astronomy also played a part in education (as the quadrivium).

Trivium

classical liberal arts curriculumclassical triviumhumanities
Belonging to the trivium of the seven liberal arts, grammar was taught as a core discipline throughout the Middle Ages, following the influence of authors from Late Antiquity, such as Priscian.
The trivium is the lower division of the seven liberal arts and comprises grammar, dialectic, and rhetoric.

Spanish grammar

Spanishpreteritconjunction
In 1486, Antonio de Nebrija published Las introduciones Latinas contrapuesto el romance al Latin, and the first Spanish grammar, Gramática de la lengua castellana, in 1492.
Spanish grammar is the grammar of the Spanish language (español), which is a Romance language that originated in north central Spain and is spoken today throughout Spain, some twenty countries in the Americas, and Equatorial Guinea in Africa.

Antonio de Nebrija

Antonio de '''NebrijaNebrijaAntonio de Lebrija
In 1486, Antonio de Nebrija published Las introduciones Latinas contrapuesto el romance al Latin, and the first Spanish grammar, Gramática de la lengua castellana, in 1492.
He wrote poetry, commented on literary works, and encouraged the study of classical languages and literature but his most important contributions were in the fields of grammar and lexicography.

The Art of Grammar

Ars Grammaticafirst book on Greek grammartéchnē grammatikḗ
The oldest known grammar handbook is the Art of Grammar, a succinct guide to speaking and writing clearly and effectively, written by the ancient Greek scholar Dionysius Thrax (c.
The Art of Grammar (Τέχνη Γραμματική or (romanized) Téchnē Grammatikḗ) is a treatise on Greek grammar, attributed to Dionysius Thrax, who wrote in the 2nd century BC. It is the first work on grammar in Greek, and also the first concerning a Western language; it sought mainly to help speakers of Koine Greek understand the language of Homer and other great poets of the past.

Kātyāyana

Katyayana
The grammatical rules were formulated by Indra, Chandra, etc., but the modern systematic grammar, of Sanskrit, originated in Iron Age India, with Yaska (6th century BC), Pāṇini (6-5th century BC ) and his commentators Pingala (c. 200 BC), Katyayana, and Patanjali (2nd century BC).
The Vārttikakāra, an elaboration on Pāṇini grammar. Along with the Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali, this text became a core part of the Vyākaraṇa (grammar) canon. This was one of the six Vedangas, and constituted compulsory education for students in the following twelve centuries.

Gramática de la lengua castellana

grammar of CastilianGrammar of the Castilian LanguageGramática
In 1486, Antonio de Nebrija published Las introduciones Latinas contrapuesto el romance al Latin, and the first Spanish grammar, Gramática de la lengua castellana, in 1492.
It was the first work dedicated to the Spanish language and its rules, and the first grammar of a modern European language to be published.

Generative grammar

generative linguisticsgenerativegenerative phonology
Generative grammar: algorithmic constituency aka "phrase structure" relation (Noam Chomsky 1950)
Generative grammar is a linguistic theory that regards grammar as a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations of words that form grammatical sentences in a given language.

Universal grammar

nativismuniversalgeneral rules
Most mainstream frameworks are based on the conception of an innate "universal grammar", an idea developed by Noam Chomsky.
The basic postulate of UG is that a certain set of structural rules are innate to humans, independent of sensory experience.

Renaissance

the Renaissanceearly RenaissanceRenaissance Europe
Treatment of vernaculars began gradually during the High Middle Ages, with isolated works such as the First Grammatical Treatise, but became influential only in the Renaissance and Baroque periods.
Humanist education was based on the programme of 'Studia Humanitatis', the study of five humanities: poetry, grammar, history, moral philosophy and rhetoric.

Dependency grammar

dependentdependencydependency grammars
Dependency grammar: dependency relation (Lucien Tesnière 1959)
Dependency grammar (DG) is a class of modern grammatical theories that are all based on the dependency relation (as opposed to the constituency relation) and that can be traced back primarily to the work of Lucien Tesnière.

Lexical functional grammar

lexical-functional grammarLFG
Lexical functional grammar
Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is a constraint-based grammar framework in theoretical linguistics.

Principles and parameters

parameterPrinciples and Parameters theorylinguistic parameters
Principles and parameters grammar (Government and binding theory) (1980s)
Principles and parameters is a framework within generative linguistics in which the syntax of a natural language is described in accordance with general principles (i.e. abstract rules or grammars) and specific parameters (i.e. markers, switches) that for particular languages are either turned on or off.

Construction grammar

constructionBerkeley Construction Grammarconstructionally
Construction grammar
In linguistics, construction grammar groups a number of models of grammar that all subscribe to the idea that knowledge of a language is based on a collection of "form and function pairings".

Word

wordsverballexical
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Grammar classifies a language's lexicon into several groups of words.