Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of languagegrammatical structuregrammar frameworkgrammarsgrammatical rulesdescriptive grammargrammariangrammatical systems
In linguistics, grammar (from Ancient Greek γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases and words in a natural language.wikipedia
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Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In linguistics, grammar (from Ancient Greek γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases and words in a natural language.
Grammar is a system of rules which governs the production and use of utterances in a given language.

Phonetics

phoneticphoneticallyphonetician
The term refers also to the study of such rules and this field includes phonology, morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics and pragmatics.
Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs and how they pattern in and across languages.

Phrase

phrasesTense phrasephrasal
In linguistics, grammar (from Ancient Greek γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases and words in a natural language.
In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy.

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
The term refers also to the study of such rules and this field includes phonology, morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics and pragmatics.
4th century BC in Ancient India), is often cited as an example of a premodern work that approaches the sophistication of a modern syntactic theory (as works on grammar were written long before modern syntax came about).

Sentence clause structure

simple sentencecomplex sentencecompound sentence
Alternatively, it may refer only to what is common to the grammars of all or of the vast majority of English speakers (such as subject–verb–object word order in simple declarative sentences).
In grammar, sentence clause structure, commonly known as sentence composition, is the classification of sentences based on the number and kind of clauses in their syntactic structure.

Pragmatics

pragmaticpragmaticallylinguistic pragmatics
The term refers also to the study of such rules and this field includes phonology, morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics and pragmatics.
Unlike semantics, which examines meaning that is conventional or "coded" in a given language, pragmatics studies how the transmission of meaning depends not only on structural and linguistic knowledge (grammar, lexicon, etc.) of the speaker and listener but also on the context of the utterance, any pre-existing knowledge about those involved, the inferred intent of the speaker, and other factors.

Variation (linguistics)

linguistic variationvariationlanguage variation
It may refer to the whole of English grammar; that is, to the grammars of all the speakers of the language, in which case the term encompasses a great deal of variation.
Speakers may vary pronunciation (accent), word choice (lexicon), or morphology and syntax (sometimes called "grammar").

Morphology (linguistics)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
The term refers also to the study of such rules and this field includes phonology, morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics and pragmatics.
While words, along with clitics, are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, in most languages, if not all, many words can be related to other words by rules that collectively describe the grammar for that language.

Tolkāppiyam

TolkappiyamTholkappiyamTolkappiyar
Tolkāppiyam, the earliest Tamil grammar, is mostly dated to before the 5th century AD.
Tolkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம், lit. "ancient book") is the most ancient Tamil grammar text and the oldest surviving work of Tamil literature.

Standard English

standardEnglishstandardized form of English
It may also refer to the rules of a particular, relatively well-defined variety of English (such as standard English for a region).
Functionally, the national varieties of SE are characterized by generally accepted rules, often grammars established by linguistic prescription in the 18th century.

Codification (linguistics)

codificationcodifiedcodify
This kind of linguistic description contrasts with linguistic prescription, an attempt to actively discourage or suppress some grammatical constructions, while codifying and promoting others, either in an absolute sense or in reference to a standard variety.
It typically means to develop a writing system, set up normative rules for grammar, orthography, pronunciation, and usage of vocabulary as well as publish grammar books, dictionaries and similar guidelines.

Language acquisition

language learningfirst language acquisitionacquisition
The vast majority of the information in the grammar is – at least in the case of one's native language – acquired not by conscious study or instruction but by hearing other speakers.
Otherwise, they argue, it is extremely difficult to explain how children, within the first five years of life, routinely master the complex, largely tacit grammatical rules of their native language.

Verrius Flaccus

Marcus Verrius FlaccusFlaccus
Latin grammar developed by following Greek models from the 1st century BC, due to the work of authors such as Orbilius Pupillus, Remmius Palaemon, Marcus Valerius Probus, Verrius Flaccus, and Aemilius Asper.
55 BC – AD 20) was a Roman grammarian and teacher who flourished under Augustus and Tiberius.

Liberal arts education

liberal artsliberal studiesArts
Belonging to the trivium of the seven liberal arts, grammar was taught as a core discipline throughout the Middle Ages, following the influence of authors from Late Antiquity, such as Priscian.
Grammar, logic, and rhetoric were the core liberal arts (the trivium), while arithmetic, geometry, the theory of music, and astronomy were the following stage of education (as the quadrivium).

Trivium

Trivium (education)classical liberal arts curriculumclassical trivium
Belonging to the trivium of the seven liberal arts, grammar was taught as a core discipline throughout the Middle Ages, following the influence of authors from Late Antiquity, such as Priscian.
The trivium is the lower division of the seven liberal arts and comprises grammar, logic, and rhetoric.

Spanish grammar

Spanishpreteritconjunction
In 1486, Antonio de Nebrija published Las introduciones Latinas contrapuesto el romance al Latin, and the first Spanish grammar, Gramática de la lengua castellana, in 1492.
Spanish grammar is the grammar of the Spanish language (español), which is a Romance language that originated in north central Spain and is spoken today throughout Spain, some twenty countries in the Americas, and Equatorial Guinea in Africa.

Antonio de Nebrija

NebrijaAntonio de '''NebrijaAntonio of Lebrixa
In 1486, Antonio de Nebrija published Las introduciones Latinas contrapuesto el romance al Latin, and the first Spanish grammar, Gramática de la lengua castellana, in 1492.
He wrote poetry, commented on literary works, and encouraged the study of classical languages and literature but his most important contributions were in the fields of grammar and lexicography.

The Art of Grammar

Art of GrammarArs Grammaticafirst book on Greek grammar
The oldest known grammar handbook is the Art of Grammar, a succinct guide to speaking and writing clearly and effectively, written by the ancient Greek scholar Dionysius Thrax (c.
The Art of Grammar (Τέχνη Γραμματική or (romanized) Téchnē Grammatikḗ) is a treatise on Greek grammar, attributed to Dionysius Thrax, who wrote in the 2nd century BC.

Gramática de la lengua castellana

Gramática CastellanaGrammar of the Castilian Languagegrammar of Castilian
In 1486, Antonio de Nebrija published Las introduciones Latinas contrapuesto el romance al Latin, and the first Spanish grammar, Gramática de la lengua castellana, in 1492.
It was the first work dedicated to the Spanish language and its rules, and the first grammar of a modern European language to be published.

Generative grammar

generative linguisticsgenerativegenerative phonology
Generative grammar is a linguistic theory that regards grammar as a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations of words that form grammatical sentences in a given language.

Universal grammar

linguistic nativismnativismuniversal
Most mainstream frameworks are based on the conception of an innate "universal grammar", an idea developed by Noam Chomsky.
The basic postulate of UG is that a certain set of structural rules are innate to humans, independent of sensory experience.

Renaissance

the RenaissanceEarly RenaissanceEuropean Renaissance
Treatment of vernaculars began gradually during the High Middle Ages, with isolated works such as the First Grammatical Treatise, but became influential only in the Renaissance and Baroque periods.
Humanist education was based on the programme of 'Studia Humanitatis', the study of five humanities: poetry, grammar, history, moral philosophy and rhetoric.

Dependency grammar

dependentdependencydependency grammars
Dependency grammar (DG) is a class of modern grammatical theories that are all based on the dependency relation (as opposed to the relation of phrase structure) and that can be traced back primarily to the work of Lucien Tesnière.

Kātyāyana

Katyayana
200 BC), Katyayana, and Patanjali (2nd century BC).

Lexical functional grammar

Lexical-functional grammarLFGLexical functional grammar (LFG)
Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is a constraint-based grammar framework in theoretical linguistics.