Grammatical aspect

aspectaspectualaspectsverb aspectaspect markerverb aspectsASPaspect markersAspectivalaspectual system
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.wikipedia
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Verb

verbsv.verbal morphology
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice.

Habitual aspect

habitualhabitual actionhabitual occurrences
Further distinctions can be made, for example, to distinguish states and ongoing actions (continuous and progressive aspects) from repetitive actions (habitual aspect).
In linguistics, the aspect of a verb is a grammatical category that defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in a given action, event, or state.

Tense–aspect–mood

TAMtensetense, aspect and mood
The marking of aspect is often conflated with the marking of tense and mood (see tense–aspect–mood).
Tense–aspect–mood, commonly abbreviated ' and also called tense–modality–aspect or ', is the grammatical system of a language that covers the expression of tense (location in time), aspect (fabric of time – a single block of time, continuous flow of time, or repetitive occurrence), and mood or modality (degree of necessity, obligation, probability, ability).

Perfect (grammar)

perfectperfect aspectperfect tense
This is the case with the perfect aspect, which indicates that an event occurred prior to (but has continuing relevance at) the time of reference: "I have eaten"; "I had eaten"; "I will have eaten". For example, the K'iche' language spoken in Guatemala has the inflectional prefixes k- and x- to mark incompletive and completive aspect; Mandarin Chinese has the aspect markers -le 了, -zhe 着, zài- 在, and -guò 过 to mark the perfective, durative stative, durative progressive, and experiential aspects, and also marks aspect with adverbs; and English marks the continuous aspect with the verb to be coupled with present participle and the perfect with the verb to have coupled with past participle.
Modern analyses view the perfect constructions of these languages as combining elements of grammatical tense (such as time reference) and grammatical aspect.

Past tense

pastpast-tensePST
Aspectual distinctions may be restricted to certain tenses: in Latin and the Romance languages, for example, the perfective–imperfective distinction is marked in the past tense, by the division between preterites and imperfects.
In some languages, the grammatical expression of past tense is combined with the expression of other categories such as mood and aspect (see tense–aspect–mood).

Grammatical mood

moodmoodsmode
The marking of aspect is often conflated with the marking of tense and mood (see tense–aspect–mood).
Mood is distinct from grammatical tense or grammatical aspect, although the same word patterns are used for expressing more than one of these meanings at the same time in many languages, including English and most other modern Indo-European languages.

Grammatical tense

tensetensesverb tense
The marking of aspect is often conflated with the marking of tense and mood (see tense–aspect–mood).
Expressions of tense are often closely connected with expressions of the category of aspect; sometimes what are traditionally called tenses (in languages such as Latin) may in modern analysis be regarded as combinations of tense with aspect.

Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflect
Grammatical aspect is a formal property of a language, distinguished through overt inflection, derivational affixes, or independent words that serve as grammatically required markers of those aspects.
In grammar, inflection is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

Boundedness (linguistics)

boundedboundedness
Perfective aspect is used in referring to an event conceived as bounded and unitary, without reference to any flow of time during ("I helped him").
Though this feature most often distinguishes countability in nouns and aspect in verbs, it applies more generally to any syntactic category.

Grammatical category

grammatical categoriescategoriescategory
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
For example, the meanings associated with the categories of tense, aspect and mood are often bound in up verb conjugation patterns that do not have separate grammatical elements corresponding to each of the three categories; see Tense–aspect–mood.

Imperfect

imperfect tenseImperfect indicativeIMPF
Aspectual distinctions may be restricted to certain tenses: in Latin and the Romance languages, for example, the perfective–imperfective distinction is marked in the past tense, by the division between preterites and imperfects.
Traditionally, the imperfect of languages such as Latin and French is referred to as one of the tenses, although in fact it encodes aspectual information in addition to tense (time reference).

Participle

past participlepresent participleparticiples
For example, the K'iche' language spoken in Guatemala has the inflectional prefixes k- and x- to mark incompletive and completive aspect; Mandarin Chinese has the aspect markers -le 了, -zhe 着, zài- 在, and -guò 过 to mark the perfective, durative stative, durative progressive, and experiential aspects, and also marks aspect with adverbs; and English marks the continuous aspect with the verb to be coupled with present participle and the perfect with the verb to have coupled with past participle.
Like other parts of the verb, participles can be either active (e.g. breaking) or passive (e.g. broken). Participles are also often associated with certain verbal aspects or tenses.

Lexical aspect

aktionsartaspectaktionsart or lexical aspect
Grammatical aspect is distinguished from lexical aspect or aktionsart, which is an inherent feature of verbs or verb phrases and is determined by the nature of the situation that the verb describes.
Lexical aspect is distinguished from grammatical aspect: lexical aspect is an inherent property of a (semantic) eventuality, whereas grammatical aspect is a property of a (syntactic or morphological) realization.

Continuous and progressive aspects

progressiveprogressive aspectcontinuous aspect
Further distinctions can be made, for example, to distinguish states and ongoing actions (continuous and progressive aspects) from repetitive actions (habitual aspect). For example, the K'iche' language spoken in Guatemala has the inflectional prefixes k- and x- to mark incompletive and completive aspect; Mandarin Chinese has the aspect markers -le 了, -zhe 着, zài- 在, and -guò 过 to mark the perfective, durative stative, durative progressive, and experiential aspects, and also marks aspect with adverbs; and English marks the continuous aspect with the verb to be coupled with present participle and the perfect with the verb to have coupled with past participle.
The continuous and progressive aspects (abbreviated and ) are grammatical aspects that express incomplete action ("to do") or state ("to be") in progress at a specific time: they are non-habitual, imperfective aspects.

American Sign Language

ASLsign languageAmerican Sign Language (ASL)
Prominent in this category are Chinese and American Sign Language, which both differentiate many aspects but rely exclusively on optional time-indicating terms to pinpoint an action with respect to time.
ASL has verbal agreement and aspectual marking and has a productive system of forming agglutinative classifiers.

Present tense

presentpresent indicativePRES
All are in the present tense, indicated by the present-tense verb of each sentence (eat, am, and have). Yet since they differ in aspect each conveys different information or points of view as to how the action pertains to the present.
A number of multi-word constructions exist to express combinations of present tense with aspect.

Telicity

telicatelicatelic verbs
One of the factors in situation aspect is telicity.
The tense and aspect of a verb may affect the result of this test; for example, phrases with progressive verb forms (is going, was talking, has been doing, and so on) almost always accept for an hour and almost never accept in an hour. The test is therefore primarily of interest for verb phrases with verbs in the simple past tense.

Yāska

YaskaYasaka
The Indian linguist Yaska (ca.
These concepts are related to modern notions of grammatical aspect, the mūrta constituting the perfective and the bhāva the imperfective aspect.

Simple present

present simplesimple present tenseThe present tense
Present simple (not progressive, not perfect): "I eat"
It is commonly referred to as a tense, although it also encodes certain information about aspect in addition to present time.

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
Even languages that do not mark aspect morphologically or through auxiliary verbs, however, can convey such distinctions by the use of adverbs or other syntactic constructions.
Aspect

Prospective aspect

prospective
The prospective aspect is a combination of tense and aspect that indicates the action is in preparation to take place.
In linguistics, the prospective aspect (abbreviated ' or ') is a grammatical aspect describing an event that occurs subsequent to a given reference time.

Uses of English verb forms

past progressivesimplefuture-in-the-past
Present perfect progressive (progressive, perfect): "I have been eating"
The uses considered include expression of tense (time reference), aspect, mood and modality, in various configurations.

Pluperfect

past perfectPast Perfect (Sof Davar)past perfect tense
Another is in the pluperfect ("I had eaten"), which sometimes represents the combination of past tense and perfect ("I was full because I had already eaten"), but sometimes simply represents a past action that is anterior to another past action ("A little while after I had eaten, my friend arrived").
The pluperfect is traditionally described as a tense; in modern linguistic terminology it may be said to combine tense with grammatical aspect; namely past tense (reference to past time) and perfect aspect (state of being completed).

Future perfect

futur antérieurfuture pastfuturum exactum
Future perfect, conditional perfect: "I will have eaten", "I would have eaten"
It is a grammatical combination of the future tense, or other marking of future time, and the perfect, a grammatical aspect that views an event as prior and completed.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
It semantically corresponds to the distinction between the morphological forms known respectively as the aorist and imperfect in Greek, the preterite and imperfect in Spanish, the simple past (passé simple) and imperfect in French, and the perfect and imperfect in Latin (from the Latin "perfectus", meaning "completed").