Grammatical gender

genderfemininemasculinegendersfeminine gendermasculine genderneuterneuter genderfeminine formm
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.wikipedia
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Noun class

noun classesnoun-classclass
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
Some authors use the term "grammatical gender" as a synonym of "noun class", but others use different definitions for each.

Agreement (linguistics)

agreementagreegrammatical agreement
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
It is an instance of inflection, and usually involves making the value of some grammatical category (such as gender or person) "agree" between varied words or parts of the sentence.

Grammatical category

grammatical categoriescategoriescategory
In these languages, most or all nouns inherently carry one value of the grammatical category called gender; the values present in a given language (of which there are usually two or three) are called the genders of that language.
Examples of frequently encountered grammatical categories include tense (which may take values such as present, past, etc.), number (with values such as singular, plural, and sometimes dual, trial and paucal) and gender (with values such as masculine, feminine and neuter).

Pronoun

pronounspronominalpronominal system
Grammatical gender manifests itself when words related to a noun like determiners, pronouns or adjectives change their form (inflect) according to the gender of noun they refer to (agreement). The parts of speech affected by gender agreement, the circumstances in which it occurs, and the way words are marked for gender vary between languages. These related words can be, depending on the language: determiners, pronouns, numerals, quantifiers, possessives, adjectives, past and passive participles, articles, verbs, adverbs, complementizers, and adpositions.
Personal pronouns may be classified by person, number, gender and case.

Spanish language

SpanishSpanish-languageCastilian
Grammatical gender is found in many Indo-European languages (including Spanish, French, Russian, German and Hindi — but not Persian or English, for example), Afroasiatic languages (which includes the Semitic and Berber languages, etc.), and in other language families such as Dravidian and Northeast Caucasian, as well as several Australian Aboriginal languages such as Dyirbal, and Kalaw Lagaw Ya.
The noun and adjective systems exhibit two genders and two numbers, in addition articles and some pronouns and determiners have a neuter gender in singular.

Turkic languages

TurkicTurkic-speakingTurkic language
Conversely, grammatical gender is usually absent from the Koreanic, Japonic, Tungusic, Turkic, Mongolic, Austronesian, Sino-Tibetan, Uralic and most Native American language families.
Characteristic features of Turkish, such as vowel harmony, agglutination, and lack of grammatical gender, are universal within the Turkic family.

Animacy

inanimateanimateanimacy hierarchy
Common gender divisions include masculine and feminine; masculine, feminine and neuter; or animate and inanimate.
The Tamil language has a noun classification based on animacy.

Grammatical number

numbersingularnumbers
Gender inflection may interact with other grammatical categories like number or case.
In both Russian and Arabic, the singulative form always takes on the feminine gender.

Participle

past participlepresent participleparticiples
These related words can be, depending on the language: determiners, pronouns, numerals, quantifiers, possessives, adjectives, past and passive participles, articles, verbs, adverbs, complementizers, and adpositions.
Its name comes from the Latin participium, a calque of Greek μετοχή (metokhḗ) "partaking" or "sharing"; it is so named because the Ancient Greek and Latin participles "share" some of the categories of the adjective or noun (gender, number, case) and some of those of the verb (tense and voice).

Swedish language

SwedishSwedish-languageSwedish-speaking
Examples include Danish and Swedish (see Gender in Danish and Swedish), and to some extent Dutch (see Gender in Dutch grammar).
Swedish has two genders and is generally seen to have two grammatical cases – nominative and genitive (except for pronouns that, as in English, also are inflected in the object form) – although it is debated if the genitive in Swedish should be seen as a genitive case, or just the nominative plus the so-called genitive s, then seen as a clitic.

Verb

verbsv.verbal morphology
These related words can be, depending on the language: determiners, pronouns, numerals, quantifiers, possessives, adjectives, past and passive participles, articles, verbs, adverbs, complementizers, and adpositions.
A verb may also agree with the person, gender or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object.

Polish grammar

PolishPolish declensionPolish-grammar
In some of the Slavic languages, for example, within the masculine and sometimes feminine and neuter genders, there is a further division between animate and inanimate nouns – and in Polish, also sometimes between nouns denoting humans and non-humans.
Distinctive features include the different treatment of masculine personal nouns in the plural, and the complex grammar of numerals and quantifiers.

Gender in Danish and Swedish

Examples include Danish and Swedish (see Gender in Danish and Swedish), and to some extent Dutch (see Gender in Dutch grammar).
In standard Danish and Swedish, nouns have two grammatical genders, and pronouns have the same two grammatical genders in addition to two natural genders similar to English.

Declension

declinedcasecases
In some languages the declension pattern followed by the noun itself will be different for different genders.
Declensions may apply to nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, numerals, and articles to indicate number (at least singular and plural), case (nominative or subjective, genitive or possessive, etc.), and/or gender.

Marathi language

MarathiMarathi-language Marathi
masculine–feminine–neuter: This is similar to the masculine–feminine system, except that there is a third available gender, so nouns with sexless or unspecified-sex referents may be either masculine, feminine, or neuter. There are also certain exceptional nouns whose gender does not follow the denoted sex, such as the German Mädchen, meaning "girl", which is neuter. This is because it is actually a diminutive of "Magd" and all diminutive forms with the suffix -chen are neuter. Examples of languages with such a system include later forms of Proto-Indo-European (see below), Sanskrit, Norwegian in most dialects and in both written forms (Bokmål and Nynorsk), Marathi, Greek, Latin, Romanian, German, standard Dutch and some dialects and the Slavic languages.
Marathi distinguishes inclusive and exclusive forms of 'we' and possesses a three-way gender system that features the neuter in addition to the masculine and the feminine.

Gender in Dutch grammar

Dutchgrammatical genders
Examples include Danish and Swedish (see Gender in Danish and Swedish), and to some extent Dutch (see Gender in Dutch grammar).
Traditionally, nouns in Dutch, like in German and Icelandic, have retained the three grammatical genders found in the older forms of all Germanic languages: masculine, feminine, or neuter.

Latin declension

genitive casedeclensionsecond declension
For some instances of this, see Latin declension.
Latin declension is the set of patterns according to which Latin words are declined, or have their endings altered to show grammatical case and gender.

Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflect
Grammatical gender manifests itself when words related to a noun like determiners, pronouns or adjectives change their form (inflect) according to the gender of noun they refer to (agreement). The parts of speech affected by gender agreement, the circumstances in which it occurs, and the way words are marked for gender vary between languages.
In grammar, inflection is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

Afroasiatic languages

Afro-AsiaticAfroasiaticAfroasiatic language family
Grammatical gender is found in many Indo-European languages (including Spanish, French, Russian, German and Hindi — but not Persian or English, for example), Afroasiatic languages (which includes the Semitic and Berber languages, etc.), and in other language families such as Dravidian and Northeast Caucasian, as well as several Australian Aboriginal languages such as Dyirbal, and Kalaw Lagaw Ya.
It was the Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius (1810–1884) who restricted Hamitic to the non-Semitic languages in Africa, which are characterized by a grammatical gender system.

Possessive

possessive pronounpossessive casepossessive pronouns
These related words can be, depending on the language: determiners, pronouns, numerals, quantifiers, possessives, adjectives, past and passive participles, articles, verbs, adverbs, complementizers, and adpositions.
In some languages, possessive determiners are subject to agreement with the noun they modify, and possessive pronouns may be subject to agreement with their antecedent, in terms of relevant categories of gender, number and case.

Noun

nounssubstantiveabstract noun
In languages with grammatical gender, each noun is assigned to one of the classes called genders, which form a closed set.
In Sanskrit, Greek and Latin, for example, nouns are categorized by gender and inflected for case and number.

Article (grammar)

definite articlearticlearticles
These related words can be, depending on the language: determiners, pronouns, numerals, quantifiers, possessives, adjectives, past and passive participles, articles, verbs, adverbs, complementizers, and adpositions.
In languages that employ articles, every common noun, with some exceptions, is expressed with a certain definiteness, definite or indefinite, as an attribute (similar to the way many languages express every noun with a certain grammatical number—singular or plural—or a grammatical gender).

Morphology (linguistics)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
In this case, the gender assignment can also be influenced by the morphology or phonology of the noun, or in some cases can be apparently arbitrary.
Also, arranging the word forms of a lexeme into tables, by classifying them according to shared inflectional categories such as tense, aspect, mood, number, gender or case, organizes such.

Romanian language

RomanianRomanian-languagero
masculine–feminine–neuter: This is similar to the masculine–feminine system, except that there is a third available gender, so nouns with sexless or unspecified-sex referents may be either masculine, feminine, or neuter. There are also certain exceptional nouns whose gender does not follow the denoted sex, such as the German Mädchen, meaning "girl", which is neuter. This is because it is actually a diminutive of "Magd" and all diminutive forms with the suffix -chen are neuter. Examples of languages with such a system include later forms of Proto-Indo-European (see below), Sanskrit, Norwegian in most dialects and in both written forms (Bokmål and Nynorsk), Marathi, Greek, Latin, Romanian, German, standard Dutch and some dialects and the Slavic languages.
Romanian nouns also preserve the neuter gender, although instead of functioning as a separate gender with its own forms in adjectives, the Romanian neuter became a mixture of masculine and feminine.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
Grammatical gender is found in many Indo-European languages (including Spanish, French, Russian, German and Hindi — but not Persian or English, for example), Afroasiatic languages (which includes the Semitic and Berber languages, etc.), and in other language families such as Dravidian and Northeast Caucasian, as well as several Australian Aboriginal languages such as Dyirbal, and Kalaw Lagaw Ya. masculine–feminine–neuter: This is similar to the masculine–feminine system, except that there is a third available gender, so nouns with sexless or unspecified-sex referents may be either masculine, feminine, or neuter. There are also certain exceptional nouns whose gender does not follow the denoted sex, such as the German Mädchen, meaning "girl", which is neuter. This is because it is actually a diminutive of "Magd" and all diminutive forms with the suffix -chen are neuter. Examples of languages with such a system include later forms of Proto-Indo-European (see below), Sanskrit, Norwegian in most dialects and in both written forms (Bokmål and Nynorsk), Marathi, Greek, Latin, Romanian, German, standard Dutch and some dialects and the Slavic languages.
German is a fusional language with a moderate degree of inflection, with three grammatical genders; as such, there can be a large number of words derived from the same root.