Grammatical mood

moodmoodsmodeindicativemodalgrammatical moodsNegativeconditional moodenergetic moodhortative
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.wikipedia
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Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflect
That is, it is the use of verbal inflections that allow speakers to express their attitude toward what they are saying (e.g. a statement of fact, of desire, of command, etc.).
In grammar, inflection is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

Verb

verbsv.verbal morphology
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice.

Grammatical aspect

aspectaspectualaspects
Mood is distinct from grammatical tense or grammatical aspect, although the same word patterns are used for expressing more than one of these meanings at the same time in many languages, including English and most other modern Indo-European languages.
The marking of aspect is often conflated with the marking of tense and mood (see tense–aspect–mood).

Imperative mood

imperativeimperativesprohibitive
Some examples of moods are indicative, interrogative, imperative, subjunctive, injunctive, optative, and potential.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.

Tense–aspect–mood

TAMtensetense, aspect and mood
(See tense–aspect–mood for a discussion of this.)
Tense–aspect–mood, commonly abbreviated ' and also called tense–modality–aspect or ', is the grammatical system of a language that covers the expression of tense (location in time), aspect (fabric of time – a single block of time, continuous flow of time, or repetitive occurrence), and mood or modality (degree of necessity, obligation, probability, ability).

Grammatical tense

tensetensesverb tense
Mood is distinct from grammatical tense or grammatical aspect, although the same word patterns are used for expressing more than one of these meanings at the same time in many languages, including English and most other modern Indo-European languages.
Verbs are also often conjugated for mood, and since in many cases the four categories are not manifested separately, some languages may be described in terms of a combined tense–aspect–mood (TAM) system.

Interrogative

interrogative sentenceinterrogative moodQuestions
Some examples of moods are indicative, interrogative, imperative, subjunctive, injunctive, optative, and potential.
Such sentences may exhibit an interrogative grammatical mood. This applies particularly to languages that use different inflected verb forms to make questions.

Subjunctive mood

subjunctivePresent subjunctiveconjunctive
Some examples of moods are indicative, interrogative, imperative, subjunctive, injunctive, optative, and potential. For example, the subjunctive and optative moods in Ancient Greek alternate syntactically in many subordinate clauses, depending on the tense of the main verb.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.

Optative mood

optativeOPTopt.
Some examples of moods are indicative, interrogative, imperative, subjunctive, injunctive, optative, and potential. For example, the subjunctive and optative moods in Ancient Greek alternate syntactically in many subordinate clauses, depending on the tense of the main verb.
The optative mood or (abbreviated ) is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope.

Irrealis mood

irrealispotential moodpotential
Some examples of moods are indicative, interrogative, imperative, subjunctive, injunctive, optative, and potential.
In linguistics, irrealis moods (abbreviated ) are the main set of grammatical moods that indicate that a certain situation or action is not known to have happened as the speaker is talking.

Finite verb

finitefinite formsfinite form
These are all finite forms of the verb.
In many languages, finite verbs are the locus of grammatical information of gender, person, number, tense, aspect, mood, and voice.

Realis mood

indicativeindicative moodrealis
Some examples of moods are indicative, interrogative, imperative, subjunctive, injunctive, optative, and potential. The usage of the indicative, subjunctive, and jussive moods in Classical Arabic is almost completely controlled by syntactic context.
A realis mood (abbreviated ) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.

Jussive mood

jussivejussives
The usage of the indicative, subjunctive, and jussive moods in Classical Arabic is almost completely controlled by syntactic context.
The jussive (abbreviated ) is a grammatical mood of verbs for issuing orders, commanding, or exhorting (within a subjunctive framework).

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
The term is also used more broadly to describe the syntactic expression of modality; that is, the use of verb phrases that do not involve inflexion of the verb itself.
Mood

Compound verb

complex predicatecompoundcompound verbs
In Modern English, this type of modality is expressed via a periphrastic construction, with the form would + infinitive, (e.g. I would buy), and thus is a mood only in the broad sense and not in the more common narrow sense of the term "mood".
One component of the compound is a light verb or vector, which carries any inflections, indicating tense, mood, or aspect, but provides only fine shades of meaning.

Nenets languages

Nenetsyrklanguages
Some Uralic Samoyedic languages have more than ten moods; Nenets has as many as sixteen. Most other languages do not have a special mood for asking questions, but exceptions include Welsh, Nenets and Eskimo languages such as Greenlandic.
Tundra Nenets has 16 moods, most of which reflect different degrees of certainty in what in English might be called indicative statements or different degrees of force in what in English might be called imperative commands.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
Not every Indo-European language has all of these moods, but the most conservative ones such as Avestan, Ancient Greek, and Sanskrit have them all.

Conditional sentence

protasisapodosisconditionals
The conditional mood is used for speaking of an event whose realization is dependent upon another condition, particularly, but not exclusively, in conditional sentences.
The forms of verbs used in the protasis and apodosis are often subject to particular rules as regards their tense and mood.

Latin

Lat.Latin languagelat
Other languages, such as Seri and Latin, however, use special imperative forms.
Latin is a highly inflected language, with three distinct genders, seven noun cases, five declensions, four verb conjugations, four verb principal parts, six tenses, three persons, three moods, two voices, two aspects and two numbers.

Greenlandic language

GreenlandicKalaallisutGreenlandic Inuit
Most other languages do not have a special mood for asking questions, but exceptions include Welsh, Nenets and Eskimo languages such as Greenlandic.
Verbs are inflected for one of the eight moods and for the number and person of its subject and object.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
For example, the subjunctive and optative moods in Ancient Greek alternate syntactically in many subordinate clauses, depending on the tense of the main verb. Few languages have an optative as a distinct mood; some that do are Albanian, Ancient Greek, Kazakh, Japanese, Finnish, Nepali, and Sanskrit.
Verbs have four moods (indicative, imperative, subjunctive, and optative) and three voices (active, middle, and passive), as well as three persons (first, second, and third) and various other forms.

Grammatical conjugation

conjugationconjugatedconjugations
Grammatical conjugation
Conjugation may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, voice, case, and other grammatical categories such as possession, definiteness, politeness, causativity, clusivity, interrogativity, transitivity, valency, polarity, telicity, volition, mirativity, evidentiality, animacy, associativity, pluractionality, reciprocity, agreement, polypersonal agreement, incorporation, noun class, noun classifiers, and verb classifiers in some languages.

Romanian language

RomanianRomanian-languagero
However, this is not a universal trait: among others in German (as above), Finnish and Romanian (even though the last is a Romance language), the conditional mood is used in both the apodosis and the protasis.
Verbs can be put in five moods that are inflected for the person (indicative, conditional/optative, imperative, subjunctive, and presumptive) and four impersonal moods (infinitive, gerund, supine, and participle).

Albanian language

AlbanianAlbanian spellingAlbanian-speaking
Few languages have an optative as a distinct mood; some that do are Albanian, Ancient Greek, Kazakh, Japanese, Finnish, Nepali, and Sanskrit.
Its complex system of moods (six types) and tenses (three simple and five complex constructions) is distinctive among Balkan languages.

Kazakh language

KazakhKazKaz.
Few languages have an optative as a distinct mood; some that do are Albanian, Ancient Greek, Kazakh, Japanese, Finnish, Nepali, and Sanskrit.
Kazakh may express different combinations of tense, aspect and mood through the use of various verbal morphology or through a system of auxiliary verbs, many of which might better be considered light verbs.