Grammatical particle

particleparticlesgrammatical particlesgenitive particleinfinitive markerParticle (grammar)
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated ) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.wikipedia
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Affirmation and negation

negationnegativepolarity
Particles are typically words that encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense, or case), clitics, or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc. Particles are never inflected.
Affirmative and negative responses (especially, though not exclusively, to questions) are often expressed using particles or words such as yes and no, where yes is the affirmative and no the negative particle.

Phrasal verb

phrasal verbsprepositional verbsparticle verb
Depending on context, the meaning of the term may overlap with concepts such as morpheme, marker, or even adverb as in English phrasal verbs such as out in get out.
In English, a phrasal verb is a phrase such as turn down or ran into which combines two or three words from different grammatical categories: a verb and a particle and/or a preposition together form a single semantic unit.

Function word

grammatical wordfunctionalfunction
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated ) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.
Function words might be prepositions, pronouns, auxiliary verbs, conjunctions, grammatical articles or particles, all of which belong to the group of closed-class words.

List of glossing abbreviations

abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviations
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated ) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.

Chinese language

ChineseRegional dialectChinese:
In Chinese, particles are one of two major word classes.
Several derivational affixes have also been identified, but the language lacks inflection, and indicated grammatical relationships using word order and grammatical particles.

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated ) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning. In Chinese, particles are one of two major word classes.
4) निपात nipāta – particle, invariant word (perhaps preposition)

Clitic

encliticprocliticenclitics
Particles are typically words that encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense, or case), clitics, or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc. Particles are never inflected.
Grammatical particle

Conjunction (grammar)

conjunctionconjunctionssubordinating conjunction
In Latin, particles are the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction and the interjection (a word that has emotion).
In general, a conjunction is an invariable (noninflected) grammatical particle and it may or may not stand between the items conjoined.

Proto-Indo-European particles

particlesparticle
Proto-Indo-European particle
The particles of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) have been reconstructed by modern linguists based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages.

Interjection

interjectionsexclamationexclamatory particle
In Latin, particles are the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction and the interjection (a word that has emotion).
Many consider interjections to fall under the part of speech of particles which also includes adverbs, fillers and onomatopoeias.

Ilocano particles

Apo
Ilocano particles
Particles lack a meaning independent of a phrase or clause.

Old Japanese

archaic JapaneseHistorical Japanese phonologykogo
These particles may function as endings and therefore as bound morphemes rather than independent words, in particular in Old Japanese.
As in later forms of Japanese, Old Japanese word order was predominantly subject–object–verb, with adjectives and adverbs preceding the nouns and verbs they modify, and auxiliary verbs and particles consistently appended to the main verb.

Preposition and postposition

prepositionpostpositionprepositions
In Latin, particles are the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction and the interjection (a word that has emotion). Some of these particles are best analysed as case markers and some as postpositions.
The word to when it precedes the infinitive in English is not a preposition, but rather is a grammatical particle outside of any main word class.

Thai language

ThaiThai:Central Thai
Thai also has particles.
The particles are often untranslatable words added to the end of a sentence to indicate respect, a request, encouragement or other moods (similar to the use of intonation in English), as well as varying the level of formality.

Uninflected word

uninflectedindeclinablebase
Uninflected word
Grammatical particle

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated ) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.

Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflect
Particles are typically words that encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense, or case), clitics, or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc. Particles are never inflected. In grammar the term particle (abbreviated ) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.

Grammatical category

grammatical categoriescategoriescategory
Particles are typically words that encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense, or case), clitics, or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc. Particles are never inflected.

Grammatical mood

moodmoodsmode
Particles are typically words that encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense, or case), clitics, or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc. Particles are never inflected.

Grammatical tense

tensetensesverb tense
Particles are typically words that encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense, or case), clitics, or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc. Particles are never inflected.

Grammatical case

casecasescase marking
Particles are typically words that encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense, or case), clitics, or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc. Particles are never inflected.

Filler (linguistics)

fillerfillersfiller word
Particles are typically words that encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense, or case), clitics, or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc. Particles are never inflected.

Morpheme

morphemesmorphemicmonomorphemic
Depending on context, the meaning of the term may overlap with concepts such as morpheme, marker, or even adverb as in English phrasal verbs such as out in get out.

Marker (linguistics)

markermarkerscase marker
Depending on context, the meaning of the term may overlap with concepts such as morpheme, marker, or even adverb as in English phrasal verbs such as out in get out.

Adverb

adverbsadv.abstract noun
Depending on context, the meaning of the term may overlap with concepts such as morpheme, marker, or even adverb as in English phrasal verbs such as out in get out. In Latin, particles are the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction and the interjection (a word that has emotion).