Grammatical particle

particleparticlesgrammatical particlesgenitive particleinfinitive markerParticle (grammar)
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated ) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.wikipedia
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Affirmation and negation

negationnegativepolarity
Particles are typically words that encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense, or case), clitics, or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc. Particles are never inflected.
Affirmative and negative responses (especially, though not exclusively, to questions) are often expressed using particles or words such as yes and no, where yes is the affirmative and no the negative particle.

Phrasal verb

phrasal verbsPrepositional verbprepositional verbs
Depending on context, the meaning of the term may overlap with concepts such as morpheme, marker, or even adverb as in English phrasal verbs such as out in get out.
In English a phrasal verb is the combining of two or three words from different grammatical categories — a verb and a particle, such as an adverb or a preposition — to form a single semantic unit on a lexical or syntactic level.

Function word

grammatical wordfunctionallexical words
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated ) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.
Function words might be prepositions, pronouns, auxiliary verbs, conjunctions, grammatical articles or particles, all of which belong to the group of closed-class words.

List of glossing abbreviations

abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviations
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated ) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated ) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.

Clitic

encliticprocliticenclitics
Particles are typically words that encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense, or case), clitics, or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc. Particles are never inflected. Linguistic analyses describe them as suffixes, clitics, or postpositions.

Proto-Indo-European particles

particlesparticle
The particles of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) have been reconstructed by modern linguists based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages.

Ilocano particles

ApoIlokano particles
Particles lack a meaning independent of a phrase or clause.

Preposition and postposition

prepositionpostpositionprepositions
Linguistic analyses describe them as suffixes, clitics, or postpositions.
The word to when it precedes the infinitive in English is not a preposition, but rather is a grammatical particle outside of any main word class.

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated ) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.

Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflectional
Particles are typically words that encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense, or case), clitics, or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc. Particles are never inflected. In grammar the term particle (abbreviated ) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.

Grammatical category

grammatical categoriescategoriescategory
Particles are typically words that encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense, or case), clitics, or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc. Particles are never inflected.

Grammatical mood

moodmoodsindicative
Particles are typically words that encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense, or case), clitics, or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc. Particles are never inflected.

Grammatical tense

tensetensesverb tense
Particles are typically words that encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense, or case), clitics, or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc. Particles are never inflected.

Grammatical case

casecasescase marking
Particles are typically words that encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense, or case), clitics, or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc. Particles are never inflected.

Filler (linguistics)

fillerfillersfiller word
Particles are typically words that encode grammatical categories (such as negation, mood, tense, or case), clitics, or fillers or (oral) discourse markers such as well, um, etc. Particles are never inflected.

Morpheme

morphemesmorphemicderivational
Depending on context, the meaning of the term may overlap with concepts such as morpheme, marker, or even adverb as in English phrasal verbs such as out in get out.

Marker (linguistics)

markermarkerscase marker
Depending on context, the meaning of the term may overlap with concepts such as morpheme, marker, or even adverb as in English phrasal verbs such as out in get out.

Adverb

adverbsadv.abstract noun
Depending on context, the meaning of the term may overlap with concepts such as morpheme, marker, or even adverb as in English phrasal verbs such as out in get out.

Deixis

deicticdeicticsdeictically
Under a strict definition, in which a particle must be uninflected, English deictics like this and that would not be classed as such (since they have plurals and are therefore inflected), and neither would Romance articles (since they are inflected for number and gender).

Romance languages

RomanceRomance languageRomanic
Under a strict definition, in which a particle must be uninflected, English deictics like this and that would not be classed as such (since they have plurals and are therefore inflected), and neither would Romance articles (since they are inflected for number and gender).

Grammatical relation

grammatical functiongrammatical relationssyntactic function
Structural particles are used for grammatical relations.