Grammatical tense

tensetensesverb tenseverbal tensestemporaltense and moodcompound tensesgrammatical placementpast tensetensed
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.wikipedia
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Past tense

pastpast-tensePST
Basic tenses found in many languages include the past, present, and future. Some languages have all three basic tenses (the past, present, and future), while others have only two: some have past and nonpast tenses, the latter covering both present and future times (as in Arabic, Japanese, and in English in some analyses), whereas others such as Greenlandic and Quechua have future and nonfuture.
The past tense (abbreviated ) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.

Future tense

futureFUTfuture indicative
Basic tenses found in many languages include the past, present, and future. Some languages have all three basic tenses (the past, present, and future), while others have only two: some have past and nonpast tenses, the latter covering both present and future times (as in Arabic, Japanese, and in English in some analyses), whereas others such as Greenlandic and Quechua have future and nonfuture.
An example of a future tense form is the French aimera, meaning "will love", derived from the verb aimer ("love").

Grammatical conjugation

conjugationconjugatedconjugations
Tenses are usually manifested by the use of specific forms of verbs, particularly in their conjugation patterns.
Conjugation may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, voice, case, and other grammatical categories such as possession, definiteness, politeness, causativity, clusivity, interrogativity, transitivity, valency, polarity, telicity, volition, mirativity, evidentiality, animacy, associativity, pluractionality, reciprocity, agreement, polypersonal agreement, incorporation, noun class, noun classifiers, and verb classifiers in some languages.

Present tense

presentpresent indicativePRES
Basic tenses found in many languages include the past, present, and future. Some languages have all three basic tenses (the past, present, and future), while others have only two: some have past and nonpast tenses, the latter covering both present and future times (as in Arabic, Japanese, and in English in some analyses), whereas others such as Greenlandic and Quechua have future and nonfuture.
The present tense (abbreviated or ) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.

Grammatical category

grammatical categoriescategoriescategory
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
Examples of frequently encountered grammatical categories include tense (which may take values such as present, past, etc.), number (with values such as singular, plural, and sometimes dual, trial and paucal) and gender (with values such as masculine, feminine and neuter).

Verb

verbsv.action verb
Tenses are usually manifested by the use of specific forms of verbs, particularly in their conjugation patterns.
In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice.

Pluperfect

past perfectplus-que-parfaitPast Perfect (Sof Davar)
Some languages have different verb forms or constructions which manifest relative tense, such as pluperfect ("past-in-the-past") and "future-in-the-past".
The pluperfect (or plusquamperfect) is a type of verb form, generally treated as one of the tenses in certain languages, used to refer to an action at a time earlier than a time in the past already referred to. Examples in English are: "we had arrived"; "they had written".

Tenseless language

There are also tenseless languages, like most of the Chinese languages, though it can possess a future and nonfuture system, which is typical of Sino-Tibetan languages.
In linguistics, a tenseless language is a language that does not have a grammatical category of tense.

Grammatical aspect

aspectaspectualaspects
Expressions of tense are often closely connected with expressions of the category of aspect; sometimes what are traditionally called tenses (in languages such as Latin) may in modern analysis be regarded as combinations of tense with aspect.
The marking of aspect is often conflated with the marking of tense and mood (see tense–aspect–mood).

Grammatical mood

moodmoodsindicative
Verbs are also often conjugated for mood, and since in many cases the three categories are not manifested separately, some languages may be described in terms of a combined tense–aspect–mood (TAM) system. The category of mood is used to express modality, which includes such properties as uncertainty, evidentiality, and obligation.
Mood is distinct from grammatical tense or grammatical aspect, although the same word patterns are used for expressing more than one of these meanings at the same time in many languages, including English and most other modern Indo-European languages.

Latin conjugation

Latin verbLatinconjugation
It is not related to the adjective tense, which comes from Latin tensus, the perfect passive participle of tendere "stretch".
It may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, mood, aspect, voice, or other language-specific factors.

Uses of English verb forms

past progressivesimplefuture-in-the-past
Some languages have different verb forms or constructions which manifest relative tense, such as pluperfect ("past-in-the-past") and "future-in-the-past". As regards English, there are many verb forms and constructions which combine time reference with continuous and/or perfect aspect, and with indicative, subjunctive or conditional mood.
The uses considered include expression of tense (time reference), aspect, mood and modality, in various configurations.

TUTT (linguistics)

time of utterancemoment of speakingT UTT (linguistics)
Tenses generally express time relative to the moment of speaking.
Grammatical tense represents the contrast between two measurements along the timeline of an utterance, with one of those measurements being the time of utterance T UTT (the time at which the actual utterance is made).

Latin

Lat.Latin languagelat
Expressions of tense are often closely connected with expressions of the category of aspect; sometimes what are traditionally called tenses (in languages such as Latin) may in modern analysis be regarded as combinations of tense with aspect.
Latin is a highly inflected language, with three distinct genders, seven noun cases, five declensions, four verb conjugations, four verb principal parts, six tenses, three persons, three moods, two voices, two aspects and two numbers.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
As regards English, there are many verb forms and constructions which combine time reference with continuous and/or perfect aspect, and with indicative, subjunctive or conditional mood. Some languages have all three basic tenses (the past, present, and future), while others have only two: some have past and nonpast tenses, the latter covering both present and future times (as in Arabic, Japanese, and in English in some analyses), whereas others such as Greenlandic and Quechua have future and nonfuture.
Modern English relies more on auxiliary verbs and word order for the expression of complex tenses, aspect and mood, as well as passive constructions, interrogatives and some negation.

Linguistic modality

modalitymodalmodalities
The category of mood is used to express modality, which includes such properties as uncertainty, evidentiality, and obligation.
Modality is closely intertwined with other linguistic phenomena such as tense and aspect, evidentiality, conditionals, and others.

Conditional mood

conditionalconditional tenseconditionals
Commonly encountered moods include the indicative, subjunctive, and conditional.
In some informal contexts, such as language teaching, it may be called the "conditional tense".

French grammar

FrenchgrammarFrench plural marker
In Latin and French, for example, the imperfect denotes past time in combination with imperfective aspect, while other verb forms (the Latin perfect, and the French passé composé or passé simple) are used for past time reference with perfective aspect.
Nouns and most pronouns are inflected for number (singular or plural, though in most nouns the plural is pronounced the same as the singular even if spelled differently); adjectives, for number and gender (masculine or feminine) of their nouns; personal pronouns and a few other pronouns, for person, number, gender, and case; and verbs, for tense, aspect, mood, and the person and number of their subjects.

Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflectional
Tense is normally indicated by the use of a particular verb form – either an inflected form of the main verb, or a multi-word construction, or both in combination.
In grammar, inflection is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

Evidentiality

evidentialevidentialsevidence
The category of mood is used to express modality, which includes such properties as uncertainty, evidentiality, and obligation.
Many languages with grammatical evidentiality mark evidentiality independently from tense-aspect or epistemic modality (which is the speaker's evaluation of the information, i.e. whether it is reliable, uncertain, probable).

Latin grammar

Latinablative absolutegrammar
In Latin and French, for example, the imperfect denotes past time in combination with imperfective aspect, while other verb forms (the Latin perfect, and the French passé composé or passé simple) are used for past time reference with perfective aspect.
Nouns are inflected for number and case; pronouns and adjectives (including participles) are inflected for number, case, and gender; and verbs are inflected for person, number, tense, aspect, voice, and mood.

English verbs

English-edEnglish regular verbs
Inflection may involve the use of affixes, such as the -ed ending that marks the past tense of English regular verbs, but can also entail stem modifications, such as ablaut, as found as in the strong verbs in English and other Germanic languages, or reduplication.
Most combinations of tense, aspect, mood and voice are expressed periphrastically, using constructions with auxiliary verbs.

Japanese language

JapaneseJapanese-languageJp
Some languages have all three basic tenses (the past, present, and future), while others have only two: some have past and nonpast tenses, the latter covering both present and future times (as in Arabic, Japanese, and in English in some analyses), whereas others such as Greenlandic and Quechua have future and nonfuture.
Verbs are conjugated, primarily for tense and voice, but not person.

Relative and absolute tense

relative tenserelativeabsolute tense
This is called relative (as opposed to absolute) tense.
Relative tense and absolute tense are distinct possible uses of the grammatical category of tense.

English conditional sentences

first conditionalsecond conditional
A present tense form may sometimes refer to the past (as in the historical present), a past tense form may sometimes refer to the non-past (as in some English conditional sentences), and so on.
Different types of conditional sentences (depending largely on whether they refer to a past, present or future time frame) require the use of particular verb forms (tenses and moods) to express the condition and the consequence.