Grammatical tense

tensetensesverb tenseVerbal tensesa T categorycompound tensesfuturegrammar of timegrammatical category of tensegrammatical placement
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.wikipedia
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Past tense

pastpast-tensePST
Main tenses found in many languages include the past, present, and future. Some languages have all three basic tenses (the past, present, and future), while others have only two: some have past and nonpast tenses, the latter covering both present and future times (as in Arabic, Japanese, and in English in some analyses), whereas others such as Greenlandic and Quechua have future and nonfuture.
The past tense (abbreviated ) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.

Grammatical category

grammatical categoriescategoriescategory
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
Examples of frequently encountered grammatical categories include tense (which may take values such as present, past, etc.), number (with values such as singular, plural, and sometimes dual, trial and paucal) and gender (with values such as masculine, feminine and neuter).

Grammatical conjugation

conjugationconjugatedconjugations
Tenses are usually manifested by the use of specific forms of verbs, particularly in their conjugation patterns.
Conjugation may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, voice, case, and other grammatical categories such as possession, definiteness, politeness, causativity, clusivity, interrogativity, transitivity, valency, polarity, telicity, volition, mirativity, evidentiality, animacy, associativity, pluractionality, reciprocity, agreement, polypersonal agreement, incorporation, noun class, noun classifiers, and verb classifiers in some languages.

Verb

verbsv.verbal morphology
Tenses are usually manifested by the use of specific forms of verbs, particularly in their conjugation patterns.
In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice.

Future tense

futureFUTFuture indicative
Main tenses found in many languages include the past, present, and future. Some languages have all three basic tenses (the past, present, and future), while others have only two: some have past and nonpast tenses, the latter covering both present and future times (as in Arabic, Japanese, and in English in some analyses), whereas others such as Greenlandic and Quechua have future and nonfuture.
An example of a future tense form is the French aimera, meaning "will love", derived from the verb aimer ("love").

Present tense

presentpresent indicativePRES
Main tenses found in many languages include the past, present, and future. Some languages have all three basic tenses (the past, present, and future), while others have only two: some have past and nonpast tenses, the latter covering both present and future times (as in Arabic, Japanese, and in English in some analyses), whereas others such as Greenlandic and Quechua have future and nonfuture.
The present tense (abbreviated or ) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in the present time.

Pluperfect

past perfectPast Perfect (Sof Davar)past perfect tense
Some languages have different verb forms or constructions which manifest relative tense, such as pluperfect ("past-in-the-past") and "future-in-the-past".
The pluperfect (or plusquamperfect) is a type of verb form, generally treated as one of the tenses in certain languages, used to refer to an action at a time earlier than a time in the past already referred to. Examples in English are: "we had arrived"; "they had written".

Tenseless language

There are also tenseless languages, like most of the Chinese languages, though it can possess a future and nonfuture system, which is typical of Sino-Tibetan languages.
In linguistics, a tenseless language is a language that does not have a grammatical category of tense.

Grammatical aspect

aspectaspectualaspects
Expressions of tense are often closely connected with expressions of the category of aspect; sometimes what are traditionally called tenses (in languages such as Latin) may in modern analysis be regarded as combinations of tense with aspect. The category of aspect expresses how a state or action relates to time – whether it is seen as a complete event, an ongoing or repeated situation, etc. Many languages make a distinction between perfective aspect (denoting complete events) and imperfective aspect (denoting ongoing or repeated situations); some also have other aspects, such as a perfect aspect, denoting a state following a prior event.
The marking of aspect is often conflated with the marking of tense and mood (see tense–aspect–mood).

TUTT (linguistics)

time of utterancemoment of speakingT UTT (linguistics)
Tenses generally express time relative to the moment of speaking.
Grammatical tense represents the contrast between two measurements along the timeline of an utterance, with one of those measurements being the time of utterance T UTT (the time at which the actual utterance is made).

Grammatical mood

moodmoodsmode
Verbs are also often conjugated for mood, and since in many cases the four categories are not manifested separately, some languages may be described in terms of a combined tense–aspect–mood (TAM) system. The category of mood is used to express modality, which includes such properties as uncertainty, evidentiality, and obligation.
Mood is distinct from grammatical tense or grammatical aspect, although the same word patterns are used for expressing more than one of these meanings at the same time in many languages, including English and most other modern Indo-European languages.

Latin conjugation

Latin verbLatinconjugation
It is not related to the adjective tense, which comes from Latin tensus, the perfect passive participle of tendere "stretch".
It may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, mood, aspect, voice, or other language-specific factors.

Latin

Lat.Latin languagelat
Expressions of tense are often closely connected with expressions of the category of aspect; sometimes what are traditionally called tenses (in languages such as Latin) may in modern analysis be regarded as combinations of tense with aspect.
Latin is a highly inflected language, with three distinct genders, seven noun cases, five declensions, four verb conjugations, four verb principal parts, six tenses, three persons, three moods, two voices, two aspects and two numbers.

Uses of English verb forms

past progressivesimplefuture-in-the-past
Some languages have different verb forms or constructions which manifest relative tense, such as pluperfect ("past-in-the-past") and "future-in-the-past". As regards English, there are many verb forms and constructions which combine time reference with continuous and/or perfect aspect, and with indicative, subjunctive or conditional mood.
The uses considered include expression of tense (time reference), aspect, mood and modality, in various configurations.

French grammar

FrenchgrammarFrench plural marker
In Latin and French, for example, the imperfect denotes past time in combination with imperfective aspect, while other verb forms (the Latin perfect, and the French passé composé or passé simple) are used for past time reference with perfective aspect.
Nouns and most pronouns are inflected for number (singular or plural, though in most nouns the plural is pronounced the same as the singular even if spelled differently); adjectives, for number and gender (masculine or feminine) of their nouns; personal pronouns and a few other pronouns, for person, number, gender, and case; and verbs, for tense, aspect, mood, and the person and number of their subjects.

Linguistic modality

modalitymodalmodalities
The category of mood is used to express modality, which includes such properties as uncertainty, evidentiality, and obligation.
Modality is closely intertwined with other linguistic phenomena such as tense and aspect, evidentiality, conditionals, and others.

Latin grammar

Latinablative absolutegrammar
In Latin and French, for example, the imperfect denotes past time in combination with imperfective aspect, while other verb forms (the Latin perfect, and the French passé composé or passé simple) are used for past time reference with perfective aspect.
Nouns are inflected for number and case; pronouns and adjectives (including participles) are inflected for number, case, and gender; and verbs are inflected for person, number, tense, aspect, voice, and mood.

Evidentiality

evidentialevidentialsevidence
The category of mood is used to express modality, which includes such properties as uncertainty, evidentiality, and obligation.
Many languages with grammatical evidentiality mark evidentiality independently from tense-aspect or epistemic modality, which is the speaker's evaluation of the information, i.e. whether it is reliable, uncertain, probable.

Conditional mood

conditionalconditional tenseconditionals
Commonly encountered moods include the indicative, subjunctive, and conditional.
In some informal contexts, such as language teaching, it may be called the "conditional tense".

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
As regards English, there are many verb forms and constructions which combine time reference with continuous and/or perfect aspect, and with indicative, subjunctive or conditional mood. Some languages have all three basic tenses (the past, present, and future), while others have only two: some have past and nonpast tenses, the latter covering both present and future times (as in Arabic, Japanese, and in English in some analyses), whereas others such as Greenlandic and Quechua have future and nonfuture.
Modern English relies more on auxiliary verbs and word order for the expression of complex tenses, aspect and mood, as well as passive constructions, interrogatives and some negation.

Perfective aspect

perfectiveperfectPerfective verbs
The category of aspect expresses how a state or action relates to time – whether it is seen as a complete event, an ongoing or repeated situation, etc. Many languages make a distinction between perfective aspect (denoting complete events) and imperfective aspect (denoting ongoing or repeated situations); some also have other aspects, such as a perfect aspect, denoting a state following a prior event.
However, perfective should not be confused with tense—perfective aspect can apply to events in the past, present, or future.

Imperfect

imperfect tenseImperfect indicativeIMPF
In Latin and French, for example, the imperfect denotes past time in combination with imperfective aspect, while other verb forms (the Latin perfect, and the French passé composé or passé simple) are used for past time reference with perfective aspect.
Traditionally, the imperfect of languages such as Latin and French is referred to as one of the tenses, although in fact it encodes aspectual information in addition to tense (time reference).

Nonfuture tense

non-futurenonfuture
There are also tenseless languages, like most of the Chinese languages, though it can possess a future and nonfuture system, which is typical of Sino-Tibetan languages. Some languages have only two distinct tenses, such as past and nonpast, or future and nonfuture. Some languages have all three basic tenses (the past, present, and future), while others have only two: some have past and nonpast tenses, the latter covering both present and future times (as in Arabic, Japanese, and in English in some analyses), whereas others such as Greenlandic and Quechua have future and nonfuture.
A nonfuture tense (abbreviated ) is a grammatical tense that distinguishes a verbal action as having taken place in times past or times present, as opposed to a future tense.

English conditional sentences

first conditionalsecond conditional
A present tense form may sometimes refer to the past (as in the historical present), a past tense form may sometimes refer to the non-past (as in some English conditional sentences), and so on.
Different types of conditional sentences (depending largely on whether they refer to a past, present or future time frame) require the use of particular verb forms (tenses and moods) to express the condition and the consequence.

Japanese language

JapaneseJapanese-languageJp
Some languages have all three basic tenses (the past, present, and future), while others have only two: some have past and nonpast tenses, the latter covering both present and future times (as in Arabic, Japanese, and in English in some analyses), whereas others such as Greenlandic and Quechua have future and nonfuture.
Verbs are conjugated, primarily for tense and voice, but not person.