Grammaticalization

grammaticalizedgrammaticalisationgrammaticalisedgrammaticalizebleachedsemantic bleachinggrammaticaliseGrammaticalization theorygrammaticalizesgrammatized
In historical linguistics and language change, grammaticalization (also known as grammatization or grammaticization) is a process of language change by which words representing objects and actions (i.e. nouns and verbs) become grammatical markers (affixes, prepositions, etc.).wikipedia
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Bernd Heine

Heine, BerndHeine
Another important work was Heine and Reh's Grammaticalization and Reanalysis in African Languages (1984).
His main focal points in research and teaching are African linguistics, language sociology, grammaticalization theory and language contact.

Discourse marker

discourse particlediscourse particlesconnectives
Where grammaticalization takes place, nouns and verbs which carry certain lexical meaning develop over time into grammatical items such as auxiliaries, case markers, inflections, and sentence connectives.
The process that leads from a free construction to a discourse marker can be traced back through grammaticalisation studies and resources.

Affix

suffixaffixesaffixation
In historical linguistics and language change, grammaticalization (also known as grammatization or grammaticization) is a process of language change by which words representing objects and actions (i.e. nouns and verbs) become grammatical markers (affixes, prepositions, etc.).
In other cases, the lexical suffixes have become grammaticalized to various degrees.

Historical linguistics

diachronichistorical linguistshistorical linguist
In historical linguistics and language change, grammaticalization (also known as grammatization or grammaticization) is a process of language change by which words representing objects and actions (i.e. nouns and verbs) become grammatical markers (affixes, prepositions, etc.).
See grammaticalisation.

Preposition and postposition

prepositionpostpositionprepositions
In historical linguistics and language change, grammaticalization (also known as grammatization or grammaticization) is a process of language change by which words representing objects and actions (i.e. nouns and verbs) become grammatical markers (affixes, prepositions, etc.).
Many simple adpositions are derived from complex forms (e.g., with + in → within, by + side → beside) through grammaticalisation.

Future tense

futureFactual FutureFUT
For example, the Old English verb willan 'to want', 'to wish' has become the Modern English auxiliary verb will, which expresses intention or simply futurity.
All of the modern Romance languages have grammaticalized one of these periphrastic constructions for expressing the future tense; none of them has preserved the original Latin future.

De-categorialization

de-categorialisationdecategorialization
This is called decategorialization, or morphological reduction.
De-categorialization ([[American and British English spelling differences#-ise.2C_-ize_.28-isation.2C_-ization.29|or]] de-categorialisation) in linguistics, refers to one of the five principles by which grammaticalization can be detected while it is taking place (according to Paul Hopper).

Wei-Heng Chen

The phonetic erosion may bring a brand-new look to the phonological system of a language, by changing the inventory of phones and phonemes, making new arrangements in the phonotactic patterns of a syllable, etc. Special treatise on the phonological consequences of grammaticalization and lexicalization in the Chinese languages can be found in Wei-Heng Chen(2011), which provides evidence that a morphophonological change can later change into a purely phonological change, and evidence that there is a typological difference in the phonetic and phonological consequences of grammaticalization between monosyllabic languages (featuring an obligatory match between syllable and morpheme, with exceptions of either loanwords or derivations like reduplicatives or diminutives, other morphological alternations) vs non-monosyllabic languages (including disyllabic or bisyllabic Austronesian languages, Afro-Asiatic languages featuring a tri-consonantal word root, Indo-European languages without a 100% obligatory match between such a sound unit as syllable and such a meaning unit as morpheme or word, despite an assumed majority of monosyllabic reconstructed word stems/roots in the Proto-Indo-European hypothesis), a difference mostly initiated by the German linguist W. Humboldt, putting Sino-Tibetan languages in a sharp contrast to the other languages in the world in typology.
Chen is noted for his work in linguistics, particularly on the phonological consequences of grammaticalization and lexicalization.

Language change

corruptioncorruptedlinguistic corruption
In historical linguistics and language change, grammaticalization (also known as grammatization or grammaticization) is a process of language change by which words representing objects and actions (i.e. nouns and verbs) become grammatical markers (affixes, prepositions, etc.).

Joan Bybee

BybeeBybee, JoanJoan B. Hooper
Although these 'parameters of grammaticalization' are often linked to the theory, linguists such as Bybee et al. (1994) have acknowledged that independently, they are not essential to grammaticalization.
Much of her work concerns grammaticalization, stochastics, modality, morphology, and phonology.

Lexicalization

lexicalizedlexicalisationborrowing, and lexical and grammatical shifts
The phonetic erosion may bring a brand-new look to the phonological system of a language, by changing the inventory of phones and phonemes, making new arrangements in the phonotactic patterns of a syllable, etc. Special treatise on the phonological consequences of grammaticalization and lexicalization in the Chinese languages can be found in Wei-Heng Chen(2011), which provides evidence that a morphophonological change can later change into a purely phonological change, and evidence that there is a typological difference in the phonetic and phonological consequences of grammaticalization between monosyllabic languages (featuring an obligatory match between syllable and morpheme, with exceptions of either loanwords or derivations like reduplicatives or diminutives, other morphological alternations) vs non-monosyllabic languages (including disyllabic or bisyllabic Austronesian languages, Afro-Asiatic languages featuring a tri-consonantal word root, Indo-European languages without a 100% obligatory match between such a sound unit as syllable and such a meaning unit as morpheme or word, despite an assumed majority of monosyllabic reconstructed word stems/roots in the Proto-Indo-European hypothesis), a difference mostly initiated by the German linguist W. Humboldt, putting Sino-Tibetan languages in a sharp contrast to the other languages in the world in typology.
(See lexicon for details.) Lexicalization contrasts with grammaticalization, and the relationship between the two processes is subject to some debate.

Evidentiality

evidentialevidentialsevidence
Some concepts are often grammaticalized, while others, such as evidentiality, are not so much.
The suffix "ish" can be considered to be a grammaticalized marker of uncertainty.

Unidirectionality hypothesis

The unidirectionality hypothesis is the idea that grammaticalization, the development of lexical elements into grammatical ones, or less grammatical into more grammatical, is the preferred direction of linguistic change and that a grammatical item is much less likely to move backwards rather than forwards on Hopper & Traugott's cline of grammaticalization.
In linguistics, the unidirectionality hypothesis proposes that grammaticalisation works in a single direction.

Diminutive

diminutive formdiminutive suffixdiminutives
The phonetic erosion may bring a brand-new look to the phonological system of a language, by changing the inventory of phones and phonemes, making new arrangements in the phonotactic patterns of a syllable, etc. Special treatise on the phonological consequences of grammaticalization and lexicalization in the Chinese languages can be found in Wei-Heng Chen(2011), which provides evidence that a morphophonological change can later change into a purely phonological change, and evidence that there is a typological difference in the phonetic and phonological consequences of grammaticalization between monosyllabic languages (featuring an obligatory match between syllable and morpheme, with exceptions of either loanwords or derivations like reduplicatives or diminutives, other morphological alternations) vs non-monosyllabic languages (including disyllabic or bisyllabic Austronesian languages, Afro-Asiatic languages featuring a tri-consonantal word root, Indo-European languages without a 100% obligatory match between such a sound unit as syllable and such a meaning unit as morpheme or word, despite an assumed majority of monosyllabic reconstructed word stems/roots in the Proto-Indo-European hypothesis), a difference mostly initiated by the German linguist W. Humboldt, putting Sino-Tibetan languages in a sharp contrast to the other languages in the world in typology.
Diminutives in isolating languages may grammaticalize strategies other than suffixes or prefixes.

Layering (linguistics)

layering
Layering in linguistics refers to one of the five principles by which grammaticalisation can be detected while it is taking place.

Elizabeth C. Traugott

Elizabeth TraugottTraugott, Elizabeth C.Traugott
The unidirectionality hypothesis is the idea that grammaticalization, the development of lexical elements into grammatical ones, or less grammatical into more grammatical, is the preferred direction of linguistic change and that a grammatical item is much less likely to move backwards rather than forwards on Hopper & Traugott's cline of grammaticalization. However, Hopper and Traugott's famous pattern for the cline of grammaticalization illustrates the various stages of the form: He gives the example of Hopper and Traugott (1993), who treat some putative counterexamples as cases of lexicalization in which a grammatical form is incorporated into a lexical item but does not itself become a lexical item.
She is best known for her work on grammaticalization, subjectification, and constructionalization.

Function word

grammatical wordfunctionallexical words
Thus it creates new function words by a process other than deriving them from existing bound, inflectional constructions, instead deriving them from content words.

Divergence (linguistics)

divergence
‘’’Divergence’’’ in linguistics refers to one of the five principles by which you can detect grammaticalization while it is taking place.

Persistence (linguistics)

persistence
Persistence in linguistics refers to one of the five principles by which grammaticalisation can be detected while it is taking place.

Specialization (linguistics)

specializationspecialisation
In linguistics, the term specialization (as defined by Paul Hopper), refers to one of the five principles by which grammaticalization can be detected while it is taking place.

Olga Fischer

Fischer has published extensively in the area of English historical linguistics, especially historical syntax, where her interests in syntactic change relate to changes in word order, comparison with developments in other West Germanic languages, grammaticalization, and the interaction between grammaticalization and iconicity in language change.

Compound verb

complex predicateJapanese compound verbscompound
An illustrative example of this cline is in the orthography of Japanese compound verbs.
Some Japanese compounds have undergone grammaticalisation, as reflected in the orthography.

Paul Hopper

HopperHopper, PaulHopper, Paul J.
He gives the example of Hopper and Traugott (1993), who treat some putative counterexamples as cases of lexicalization in which a grammatical form is incorporated into a lexical item but does not itself become a lexical item.
He later also became known for his theory of emergent grammar (Hopper 1987), for his contributions to the theory of grammaticalisation and other work dealing with the interface between grammar and usage.

Content word

lexicalcontent wordscontent
The unidirectionality hypothesis is the idea that grammaticalization, the development of lexical elements into grammatical ones, or less grammatical into more grammatical, is the preferred direction of linguistic change and that a grammatical item is much less likely to move backwards rather than forwards on Hopper & Traugott's cline of grammaticalization. Thus it creates new function words by a process other than deriving them from existing bound, inflectional constructions, instead deriving them from content words.

Thomas Givon

Talmy GivónGivón, TalmyGivon, Talmy
His work covers many language areas (Semitic, African, Amerindian, Austronesian, Papuan, Sino-Tibetan, Indo-European), as well as many areas of theoretical linguistics: (syntax, semantics, pragmatics, second language acquisition, pidgins and creoles, discourse and text linguistics, methodology and philosophy of science, philosophy of language, typology and language universals, grammaticalization and historical syntax, cognitive science, language evolution).