Grand Canyon

Image of the Grand Canyon and surrounding area taken from the International Space Station
The Grand Canyon from an airplane, with the Colorado River visible
Grand Canyon, Arizona, Nevada, Lake Powell to Lake Mead, June 27, 2017, Sentinel-2 true-color satellite image. Scale 1:450,000.
Diagram showing the placement, age and thickness of the rock units exposed in the Grand Canyon
Rockfalls in recent times, along with other mass wasting, have further widened the canyon
Ancestral Puebloan granaries at Nankoweap Creek
La conquista del Colorado (2017), by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau, depicts Spanish Captain García López de Cárdenas 1540 expedition
William Bell's photograph of the Grand Canyon, taken in 1872 as part of the Wheeler expedition
Noon rest in Marble Canyon, second Powell Expedition, 1872
Desert View Watchtower in 2004
1923-built steam locomotive No. 4960 at the Grand Canyon Depot
Grand Canyon covered with snow
Smoke from prescribed fires on the South Rim, as seen from Yavapai Point, April 2007.
Natural fog sometimes fills the canyon, during temperature inversions
Grand Canyon Climate Summary Chart (NPS)
A bighorn ram perched on a cliff in the Grand Canyon
A bighorn ewe at the Grand Canyon, 2008
A California condor in flight, photographed from Navajo Bridge at Marble Canyon, 2008. Wild condors are numbered to aid wildlife researchers. As of April 2009, there were 172 wild California condors known.
Red-tailed Hawk flying at the south rim of Grand Canyon
An elk searching for water at Grand Canyon National Park in 2018.
Rafters in the Grand Canyon pass one of the rapids of the (mud-)"colored" Colorado River
Guano Point – a popular vantage point for tourists, situated on the West Rim of the Grand Canyon, Hualapai Indian Reservation
Grand Canyon rescue helicopter, 1978

Steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States.

- Grand Canyon
Image of the Grand Canyon and surrounding area taken from the International Space Station

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Francisco Vázquez Coronado in the Plaza Mayor de Salamanca

Francisco Vázquez de Coronado

Spanish conquistador and explorer who led a large expedition from what is now Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.

Spanish conquistador and explorer who led a large expedition from what is now Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.

Francisco Vázquez Coronado in the Plaza Mayor de Salamanca
The Coronado Expedition (1540–1542) from Mexico north through the future U.S. states of Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
Coronado Sets Out to the North (Frederic Remington, c. 1900)
The Coronado Expedition, 1540–1542 (DjVu format)
La conquista del Colorado, by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau, depicts Coronado's 1540–1542 expedition.
Episode from the Conquest of America by Jan Mostaert (c. 1545), probably Vázquez de Coronado in New Mexico

His expedition marked the first European sightings of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River, among other landmarks.

View of the Vermillion Cliffs (to the northeast) from the Kaibab Plateau, June 2008

Kaibab Plateau

Plateau almost entirely in Coconino County, Arizona in the Southwestern United States.

Plateau almost entirely in Coconino County, Arizona in the Southwestern United States.

View of the Vermillion Cliffs (to the northeast) from the Kaibab Plateau, June 2008
Kaibab deer from the DOCUMERICA series, a program sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency to photograph subjects of American environmental concern during the 1970s, May 1972 image
X Fire Tree Planting Restoration Project, Kaibab National Forest, April 2012
Kaibab Lake in the Williams Ranger District, Kaibab National Forest, August 2020

The plateau, part of the larger Colorado Plateau, is bordered on the south by the Grand Canyon and reaches an elevation of 9200 ft. The plateau is divided between Kaibab National Forest and the "North Rim" portion of Grand Canyon National Park.

Navajo Nation

Native American reservation in the United States.

Native American reservation in the United States.

Map of the Navajo Nation shown within the Four Corners region of the Soutwestern United States
Aerial view looking south across Arizona's Painted Desert with part of the Navajo Reservation in the foreground
Border changes and expansions of the Navajo Reservation from 1868 to 1934
1904 photograph of a young Navajo man
, the "Window Rock"
Vice President Myron Lizer, Congressman Tom O'Halleran and President Jonathan Nez in 2020
Navajo Nation Council Chamber, a National Historic Landmark
Navajo Woman at a waterfall circa 1920
Map showing populated places on the Navajo Nation and surrounding area
Navajo. Seven riders on horseback and dog trek against background of canyon cliffs. Edward S. Curtis (1904)
Navajo girl Canyon de Chelly, (1941) Ansel Adams
The Ned A Hataałi Center at Diné College's Tsaile campus
Navajo woman and child, c. 1880–1910
Number of sheep (Dibé) present on the Navajo Nation
Sheep remain an important aspect of Navajo culture and economy.
Narbona Pass Chuska Mountains

Situated on the Navajo Nation are Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Monument Valley, Rainbow Bridge National Monument, the Shiprock monadnock, and the eastern portion of the Grand Canyon.

Southwestern United States

Geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona, New Mexico, and adjacent portions of California, Colorado, Nevada, Oklahoma, Texas, and Utah.

Geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona, New Mexico, and adjacent portions of California, Colorado, Nevada, Oklahoma, Texas, and Utah.

Panoramic view of the southwestern United States
The Chihuahuan desert terrain mainly consists of basins broken by numerous small mountain ranges.
Saguaro cactus in the Sonoran Desert.
The Delicate Arch at Arches National Park
Four Corners Monument
Ancestral Puebloans ruins at Chaco Canyon
Map of Paleo-Indians in the American Southwest and Mexico
Oraibi pueblo
Narváez expedition (1528–36)
1846 map: Mexican Alta California (Upper California) in pink.
United States 1849–1850
United States 1850–1853
1860 Colorado Territory map
Utah Territory evolution 1850–1868
Confederate Arizona (outlined in blue)
Split of Arizona and New Mexico territories, in 1866, after small portion ceded to Nevada
The second transcontinental railroad: the "Santa Fe Route" – 1891.
Sandia Peak Ski Area, New Mexico
Map of the Southwestern United States as defined by the Learning Center of the American Southwest
The Wigwam. A dwelling used by various Native American tribes among the Southwestern US.
Fanciful drawing by Marguerite Martyn in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch of October 21, 1906, headed "Passing of the Country Store in the Southwest"
A Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia)
The High Plains in Eastern New Mexico, but also located in Eastern Colorado and West Texas
Desert bighorn sheep
Sonoran Desert terrain near Tucson
Chihuahuan Desert terrain near Carlsbad
Monument Canyon, some of the high desert lands found in Colorado
Grand Canyon from the South Rim
White Sands National Park, New Mexico
Little Finland in Gold Butte National Monument, Nevada
Runningback Josh Jacobs of the Las Vegas Raiders NFL team
T. J. McFarland pitcher for the Arizona Diamondbacks professional baseball team.
1. Phoenix (also the largest MSA)
2. El Paso (5th largest MSA)
3. Las Vegas (2nd largest MSA)
4. Albuquerque (also the 4th largest MSA)
5. Tucson (3rd largest MSA)

The most dramatic example is the Grand Canyon.

Navajo Generating Station

2.25-gigawatt , coal-fired power plant located on the Navajo Nation, near Page, Arizona, United States.

2.25-gigawatt , coal-fired power plant located on the Navajo Nation, near Page, Arizona, United States.

Railroad track hopper, boiler structures and stack during plant construction
Demolition of Navajo Generating Station, December 2020
Scrubber absorber vessel and flue gas stacks
Navajo Generating Station vapor emissions
Lake Powell, Page city area on the right and Navajo generating station in the background
Winter panorama showing the city of Page, the Navajo Generating Station, and LeChee Rock (left to right, looking east near center). Water vapor from the plant's stacks and cooling towers forms a large plume due to the cold air and relative humidity.
Satellite photo showing Page, Lake Powell, Glen Canyon Dam, Navajo Generating Station and Colorado River (North towards bottom, see arrow at lower right)

However, the proximity of the proposed dams to the Grand Canyon raised opposition, initially from the National Park Service and then more vigorously from a coalition of environmental groups which promoted construction of a thermal or nuclear power plant as an alternative.

Bedded and jointed cliffs of the Kaibab Limestone at the Grand Canyon. (high resolution, expandable photo)

Kaibab Limestone

Resistant cliff-forming, Permian geologic formation that crops out across the U.S. states of northern Arizona, southern Utah, east central Nevada and southeast California.

Resistant cliff-forming, Permian geologic formation that crops out across the U.S. states of northern Arizona, southern Utah, east central Nevada and southeast California.

Bedded and jointed cliffs of the Kaibab Limestone at the Grand Canyon. (high resolution, expandable photo)
Geology showing the basal layer (Kaibab Formation) of Zion National Park, southern Utah
Grand Canyon view The rim top layer is the Kaibab Limestone
Walnut Canyon, Flagstaff Arizona

The Kaibab Limestone forms the rim of the Grand Canyon.

The El Tovar Hotel in the early 1900s

El Tovar Hotel

The El Tovar Hotel in the early 1900s
Main entrance to the El Tovar Hotel (2017)
This panoramic Grand Canyon photo was taken at the El Tovar Hotel on the private deck attached to the Presidential Suite.
Sign at the main entrance.
Rear of the El Tovar on the edge of the Grand Canyon.
El Tovar lobby.
El Tovar location at the Grand Canyon south rim
El Tovar National Historic Landmark plaque

The El Tovar Hotel, also known simply as El Tovar, is a former Harvey House hotel situated directly on the south rim of the Grand Canyon in Arizona, United States.

Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park

Ancestral Puebloans

Ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado.

Ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado.

Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park
White House Ruins, Canyon de Chelly National Monument
Horseshoe Tower in the snow, Hovenweep National Monument
Map of Ancestral Pueblo and neighboring cultures
Major Ancestral Puebloan sites in the Four Corners area
Pueblo Bonito, the largest of the Chacoan Great Houses, stands at the foot of Chaco Canyon's northern rim.
Multistory dwellings at Bandelier: Rock wall foundations and beam holes and "cavates" carved into volcanic tuff remain from upper floors.
Mancos Pitcher with Black on White Geometric Designs, Ancestral Pueblo, 900–1300 AD, Brooklyn Museum
Casa Rinconada, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, New Mexico
Doorways, Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
Prehistoric roads and great houses in the San Juan Basin
Plan of entire Spruce Tree House from above, cut from laser scan data collected by a CyArk/National Park Service partnership
Laser scan section of the four-story Square Tower House, data collected by a CyArk/National Park Service partnership
Section view of Kiva A in Mesa Verde's Fire Temple, cut from laser scan data collected by a CyArk/National Park Service partnership. Since Fire Temple was at least partially built to conform to the dimensions of its cliff alcove, it is neither round in form nor truly subterranean like other structures defined as kivas.
Chaco Culture bowl, 11th to 13th centuries, Pueblo Alto, Chaco Canyon
Ancestral Puebloan ruins in Dark Canyon Wilderness, Utah
Pecos Glazeware bowl, Pecos National Historical Park
Boy in doorway, Balcony House, Mesa Verde National Park
Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park

In the Southwest, mountain ranges, rivers, and most obviously, the Grand Canyon, can be significant barriers for human communities, likely reducing the frequency of contact with other groups.

The Grand Canyon, Arizona, at the confluence of the Colorado River and Little Colorado River

Canyon

Deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic time scales.

Deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic time scales.

The Grand Canyon, Arizona, at the confluence of the Colorado River and Little Colorado River
Sumidero Canyon, Mexico
Kevo Canyon in Utsjoki, Finland
Snake River Canyon, Idaho
Fish River Canyon, Namibia
Oribi Gorge, South Africa
Itaimbezinho Canyon, Brazil
Ouimet Canyon, Ontario, Canada
Green River overlook, Canyonlands National Park, Utah, U.S.
One of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze river, China
The gorge of the Kabul River in Afghanistan
Cheddar Gorge, England
Le cirque de la Madeleine, Gorges de l'Ardèche, France
A Douro gorge on the Portugal–Spain border
Sulak Canyon in Dagestan
Buky Canyon, Ukraine
Jamison Valley, Blue Mountains National Park, Australia
Shoalhaven River Gorge, New South Wales

The Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon (or Tsangpo Canyon), along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet, is regarded by some as the deepest canyon in the world at 5500 m. It is slightly longer than the Grand Canyon in the United States.

Ta'thamiche, Hualapai 1907 photo by Edward Curtis

Hualapai

Federally recognized Native American tribe in Arizona with about 2300 enrolled members.

Federally recognized Native American tribe in Arizona with about 2300 enrolled members.

Ta'thamiche, Hualapai 1907 photo by Edward Curtis
Hualapai Reservation shown in Northwestern Arizona
A Hualapai winter camp, photographed by Edward Curtis, 1907.
Two Hualapai baskets on display, c. 1900
Two young Walapai Indian mothers with their children on their backs, Hackbury, Arizona, c. 1900
Segregated Walapai school, c. 1900.

Their traditional territory is a 108 mi stretch along the pine-clad southern side of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River with the tribal capital at Peach Springs.