A map of Greater Poland/Great Poland during Piast period from the Codex diplomaticus Maioris Poloniae, based on data from historical documents
The Grand Duchy of Posen (red) in 1848.
A map of Polish dialects. The area where Greater Poland's dialect is spoken is marked in violet.
The Prussian Province of Posen. Yellow colour: Polish-speaking areas according to German authorities, as of 1905
Poznań Town Hall
The Grand Duchy of Posen (red) in 1848.
Palace of the Raczyński family in Rogalin, within the Rogalin Landscape Park
Grand Duchy of Posen (light blue) after its creation, in 1815
Gniezno cathedral
Kalisz Town Hall
Leszno town hall
Marian sanctuary in Licheń near Konin

After the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Greater Poland was incorporated into Prussia as the Grand Duchy of Posen.

- Greater Poland

Originally part of the Kingdom of Poland, this area largely coincided with Greater Poland.

- Grand Duchy of Posen

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Poznań

14th-century seal showing Poznań's coat of arms
Monument of Mieszko I and Boleslaus I the Brave, Golden Chapel at the Poznań Cathedral
Poznań Cathedral (center) and the smaller Church of Holy Virgin Mary to its right, standing on the site of the original ducal residence
Royal Castle after its total reconstruction
Poznań, c. undefined 1617, view from the north
Interior details in the Parish Church, or simply Fara, built in 1651–1701. One of the most stunning and best preserved examples of baroque architecture in Poland
Raczyński Library (1828) at Liberty Square in 2016
Old Market Square in 1934. The Odwach guardhouse and the 1893's New Town Hall, which was not rebuilt after World War II
The skyline of Poznań, as seen from the east bank of the Warta river
Malta lake, the Mound of Freedom and artificial ski slope Malta-ski
Administrative division into 42 osiedla auxiliary units since 2011
The pre-1990 city division into main districts dzielnica, which are still retained for some administrative purposes
Bałtyk office building
A view of Stary Browar, Poznań Financial Centre, and Andersia Tower from the Collegium Altum of the University of Economics
Historical Herbrand B3/H0 horse-drawn tram used in Poznań between 1880 and 1898
The Renaissance Town Hall from 1560 served as the seat of local government until 1939 and now houses a museum
Grand Theatre behind Adama Mickiewicza Park
St. Martin's croissant
Collegium Minus of the Adam Mickiewicz University
AMU's Faculty of Political Science and Journalism at the Campus Morasko
Faculty of Chemical Technologies – Poznań University of Technology
Academy of Music
Municipal Stadium
Hala Arena before planned modernization
Poznań Główny – main railway station
Greater Poland Railways train at the Poznań Główny
A2 motorway before the six-lane expansion done in 2019
Moderus Gamma tram, which is produced near Poznań, in city's eastern underground section
City Bike's station
Solaris bus; they are also produced near Poznań
Eurocopter EC135 Lifeguard 9 waiting for an emergency dispatch at the Ławica Airport
Freedom Square (Plac Wolności)
Imperial Castle, now the Zamek Culture Centre
Merchant houses, originally 16th century's herring stalls, at the Old Market Square
Bamberka fountain at the Old Market Square
Śródka's Tale Mural in 2015
Stary Browar, Kufel by Wojciech Kujawski (Guinness ratified largest beer mug in the world), and Art Stations Foundation gallery in the background
Poznań Goat mascot, Old Market Square
Rogalin's Raczyński Palace within Rogalin Landscape Park, some 8 mi south of Poznań. Rear view

Poznań is a city on the River Warta in west-central Poland, within the Greater Poland region.

However, in 1815, following the Congress of Vienna, the region was returned to Prussia, and Poznań became the capital of the semi-autonomous Grand Duchy of Posen.

Province of Posen

Province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1848 to 1920.

Province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1848 to 1920.

Posen (red) within Prussia (white) and the German Empire (white, beige and red)
1919 German army permit to enter the Polish territory of Posen, just ceded to Poland.
Posen (red) within Prussia (white) and the German Empire (white, beige and red)
Province of Posen, 1905, Polish-speaking areas according to Prussian census shown in yellow
Regierungsbezirke Posen (pink) and Bromberg (green) and Kreise subdivisions
Language situation in the province of Posen according to the Prussian census of 1910.

Posen was established in 1848 following the Greater Poland Uprising as a successor to the Grand Duchy of Posen, which in turn was annexed by Prussia in 1815 from Napoleon's Duchy of Warsaw.

The 29000 km2 area roughly corresponded to the historic region of Greater Poland.

Duchy of Warsaw

Polish client state of the French Empire established by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1807, during the Napoleonic Wars.

Polish client state of the French Empire established by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1807, during the Napoleonic Wars.

The Duchy of Warsaw in 1812
Prince Józef Poniatowski, Commander in Chief of the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw, by Josef Grassi
The Duchy of Warsaw in 1812
Polish uhlans from the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw, 1807–1815. Painting by January Suchodolski
Map of the Duchy of Warsaw, 1807–1809
Map of the Duchy of Warsaw, 1809–1815
Napoleon conferring the Constitution in 1807

The east-central territory of the duchy acquired by the Russian Empire was subsequently transformed into a polity called Congress Poland, and Prussia formed the Grand Duchy of Posen in the west.

The Kulmerland and Gdansk (Danzig) became part of the Province of West Prussia; the remaining territories (i.e., Greater Poland/Poznań), which covered an area of approximately 29000 km2, were reconstituted into the Grand Duchy of Posen.

South Prussia 1795–1806

South Prussia

Province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1793 to 1807.

Province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1793 to 1807.

South Prussia 1795–1806
Map South Prussia (Südpreussen) and the Departments of Posen, Kalisch, and Warschau, 1801-1807

After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, it was divided between the Prussian Grand Duchy of Posen and Congress Poland, a part of the Russian Empire.

the Poznań, Kalisz and Gniezno Voivodeships of Greater Poland;

Allegory of the first partition of Poland, showing Catherine the Great of Russia (left), Joseph II of Austria and Frederick the Great of Prussia (right) quarrelling over their territorial seizures

Partitions of Poland

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

Allegory of the first partition of Poland, showing Catherine the Great of Russia (left), Joseph II of Austria and Frederick the Great of Prussia (right) quarrelling over their territorial seizures
Włodzimierz Tetmajer, Allegory of Dead Poland, St. Nicholas Cathedral, Kalisz
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth after the First Partition, as a protectorate of the Russian Empire (1773–89)
Rejtan at Sejm 1773, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1866, 282 x, Royal Castle in Warsaw
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after the Second Partition (1793)
1793 Russian campaign medal
"A map of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania including Samogitia and Curland divided according to their dismemberments with the Kingdom of Prussia" from 1799
The partition of Poland according to the German–Soviet Pact; division of Polish territories in the years 1939–1941

Frederick II of Prussia was elated with his success; Prussia took most of Royal Prussia (without Danzig) that stood between its possessions in the Kingdom of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, as well as Ermland (Warmia), northern areas of Greater Poland along the Noteć River (the Netze District), and parts of Kuyavia (but not the city of Toruń).

the 1832 incorporation of the "Congress Kingdom" into Russia, the 1846 incorporation of the Republic of Kraków into Austria, and the 1848 incorporation of the Grand Duchy of Posen into Prussia; and

The national boundaries within Europe set by the Congress of Vienna

Congress of Vienna

International diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I.

International diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I.

The national boundaries within Europe set by the Congress of Vienna
Frontispiece of the Acts of the Congress of Vienna
1. Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
 2. Joaquim Lobo Silveira, 7th Count of Oriola
 3.  António de Saldanha da Gama, Count of Porto Santo
 4. 🇸🇪 Count Carl Löwenhielm
 5.  Louis Joseph Alexis, Comte de Noailles
 6.  Klemens Wenzel, Prince von Metternich
 7.  André Dupin
 8.  Count Karl Robert Nesselrode
 9.  Pedro de Sousa Holstein, 1st Count of Palmela
 10.  Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh
 11.  Emmerich Joseph, Duke of Dalberg
 12.  Baron Johann von Wessenberg
 13.  Prince Andrey Kirillovich Razumovsky
 14.  Charles Stewart, 1st Baron Stewart
 15. 🇪🇸 Pedro Gómez Labrador, 1st Marquess of Labrador
 16.  Richard Le Poer Trench, 2nd Earl of Clancarty
 17. Clear.gif  (Recorder)
 18.  Friedrich von Gentz (Congress Secretary)
 19.  Baron Wilhelm von Humboldt
 20.  William Cathcart, 1st Earl Cathcart
 21.  Prince Karl August von Hardenberg
 22.  Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
 23.  Count Gustav Ernst von Stackelberg
Talleyrand proved an able negotiator for the defeated French.
In pink: territories left to France in 1814, but removed after the Treaty of Paris
Italian states after the Congress of Vienna with Austrian-annexed territories shown in yellow
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Russia, however, did not receive the majority of Greater Poland and Kuyavia nor the Chełmno Land, which were given to Prussia and mostly included within the newly formed Grand Duchy of Posen (Poznań), nor Kraków, which officially became a free city, but in fact was a shared protectorate of Austria, Prussia and Russia.

Gniezno

City in central-western Poland, about 50 km east of Poznań, with 68,943 inhabitants making it the sixth-largest city in the Greater Poland Voivodeship.

City in central-western Poland, about 50 km east of Poznań, with 68,943 inhabitants making it the sixth-largest city in the Greater Poland Voivodeship.

Medieval seal of Gniezno
King Władysław IV Vasa confirms the old privileges of Gniezno, 1635
19th-century painting of Gniezno
Memorial at the site of a German execution of 24 Poles in November 1939 in the Dalki district
Gniezno during the visit of Pope John Paul II in 1979
View of Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Adalbert. On the right side - church under the invocation of St. John the Baptist
Panorama of Gniezno. 19th century
Gniezno Old Town
Aleksander Fredro Theatre in Gniezno
Regional court
Gniezno Doors in the Cathedral
Coffin of Adalbert of Prague in the Cathedral
Market Square (Rynek)
Holy Trinity church
Franciscan church
Gothic Saint John the Baptist church in winter
Saint Lawrence church
Monument of King Bolesław I the Brave with the Cathedral in the background
Museum of the Polish State Origins
Museum of Archdiocese in Gniezno
Episcopal palace of Primates of Poland
Saint George's Church

The emperor and the Polish duke celebrated the foundation of the Polish ecclesiastical province (archbishopric) in Gniezno, along with newly established bishoprics in Kołobrzeg for Pomerania; Wrocław for Silesia; Kraków for Lesser Poland in addition to the bishopric in Poznań for western Greater Poland, which was established in 968.

Gnesen was subsequently governed within Kreis Gnesen of the Grand Duchy of Posen and the later Province of Posen.

Former seat of the Prussian Settlement Commission, now Poznań University's Collegium Maius

Prussian Settlement Commission

Prussian government commission that operated between 1886 and 1924, but actively only until 1918.

Prussian government commission that operated between 1886 and 1924, but actively only until 1918.

Former seat of the Prussian Settlement Commission, now Poznań University's Collegium Maius
Acquisitions of the Prussian Settlement Commission

The Commission was one of Prussia's prime instruments in the official policy of Germanization of the historically Polish lands of West Prussia (the former Royal Prussia) and the dissolved Grand Duchy of Posen.

Germans from West Prussia and Greater Poland region who took part in the settlement process declined over time, while the number of Germans from the Russian Empire increased.

Netze District in 1786

Netze District

Territory in the Kingdom of Prussia from 1772 until 1807.

Territory in the Kingdom of Prussia from 1772 until 1807.

Netze District in 1786

Beside Royal Prussia, a land of the Polish Crown since 1466, King Frederick II of Prussia also seized the adjacent lands of the Prowincja of Greater Poland to the south from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the First Partition of Poland of 1772.

At the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the demarcation line was confirmed as the northern border of the newly established Grand Duchy of Posen.

Map of Europe in 1848–1849 depicting the main revolutionary centers, important counter-revolutionary troop movements and states with abdications

Revolutions of 1848

The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe starting in 1848.

The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe starting in 1848.

Map of Europe in 1848–1849 depicting the main revolutionary centers, important counter-revolutionary troop movements and states with abdications
Galician slaughter (Polish: Rzeź galicyjska) by Jan Lewicki (1795–1871), depicting the massacre of Polish nobles by Polish peasants in Galicia in 1846.
The June Uprising of 1848 in Prague injected a strong political element into Czech National Revival.
The revolutionary barricades in Vienna in May 1848
Episode from the Five Days of Milan, painting by Baldassare Verazzi
Revolutionaries in Berlin in March 1848, waving the revolutionary flags
Danish soldiers parade through Copenhagen in 1849 after victories in the First Schleswig War
Proclamation of the Serbian Vojvodina in May 1848 during the Serb Revolution
The Battle of Buda in May 1849 by Mór Than
Hungarian hussars in battle during the Hungarian Revolution
Romanian revolutionaries in Bucharest in 1848, carrying the Romanian tricolor
A depiction of Leopold I of Belgium's symbolic offer to resign the crown in 1848
Trial of the Irish patriots at Clonmel. Young Irelanders receiving their sentence of death.
Illustration of the "March troubles" in Stockholm, Sweden in 1848
Chartist meeting on Kennington Common 10 April 1848
A caricature by Ferdinand Schröder on the defeat of the revolutions of 1848–1849 in Europe (published in Düsseldorfer Monatshefte, August 1849)
Louis Blenker [Germany]
Alexander Schimmelfennig (Germany)
Carl Schurz (Germany)
Franz Sigel (Germany)
August Willich (Germany)
Alexander Asboth (Hungary)
Lajos Kossuth (Hungary)
Albin Francisco Schoepf (Hungary)
Julius Stahel (Hungary)
Charles Zagonyi (Hungary)
Thomas Francis Meagher (Ireland)
Włodzimierz Krzyżanowski (Poland)

Additionally, an uprising by democratic forces against Prussia, planned but not actually carried out, occurred in Greater Poland.

Polish people mounted a military insurrection against the Prussians in the Grand Duchy of Posen (or the Greater Poland region), a part of Prussia since its annexation in 1815.