An 18th century map of the Arabian Peninsula circa. 1740s
Saudi soldiers fighting their way into the Ka'aba underground beneath the Grand Mosque of Mecca, 1979.
Usul al-Thalatha (Three Fundamental Principles), a pamphlet by Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
Smoke rising from the Grand Mosque during the assault on the Marwa-Safa gallery, 1979.
Document describing the historic meeting between Muhammad ibn Saud and Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
Surviving insurgents in custody of Saudi authorities (c. 1979).
The First Saudi state (1744–1818)
Anthropomorphic stela (4th millennium BC), sandstone, 57x27 cm, from El-Maakir-Qaryat al-Kaafa (National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh)
Surviving insurgents in custody of Saudi authorities (c. 1979).
The ruins of Dir'iyah, capital city of the First Saudi state
The Second Saudi state in 1850
The "Worshipping Servant" statue (2500 BC), above 1 m in height, is much taller than any possible Mesopotamian or Harappan models. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea.
Ibn Saud, the first king of Saudi Arabia circa. 1910
Qaṣr Al-Farīd, the largest of the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs built from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD, with their elaborately ornamented façades, at the extensive ancient Nabatean archaeological site of Hegra located in the area of Al-'Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Soldiers of the Ikhwan army
Colossal statue from Al-'Ula in the Hejaz (6th–4th century BC), it followed the standardized artistic sculpting of the Lihyanite kingdom, the original statue was painted with white
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia after unification in 1932
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) covered 11100000 km2 and 62 million people (29 per cent of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history.
King Faisal with pan-Islamist leader Hajji Amin al-Husseini, former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem
The Battle of Badr, 13 March 624 CE
Jamaat-e-Islami leader Abul A'la Maududi was influential in cementing the Islamist-Wahhabi alliance across South Asia
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia
Dammam No. 7, the first commercial oil well in Saudi Arabia, which struck oil on 4th of March 1938
Political map of Saudi Arabia
Mass demonstrations during the 1979 Iranian revolution
Map of Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways
Smoke rising from the Grand Mosque during the assault on the Marwa-Safa gallery, 1979
Map of oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
Map of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, December 1979
King Fahd with US President Ronald Reagan and future US President Donald Trump in 1985. The US and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan.
Saudi Crown Prince Muhammad Bin Salman
As many as 500 princes, government ministers, and business people, including Prince Fahd bin Abdullah, were arrested by Saudi Arabian authorities as part of the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge
An early photo of the Grand Mosque of Riyadh circa. 1922
Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate, 26 May 2014
Photo of a marketplace in the town of Al-Hasa circa. 1922
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
West Bay Skyline from Imam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Mosque in Doha, Qatar
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, 21 May 2017
Muwahhidun (Wahhabi) movement is highly influenced by the doctrines of the classical Hanbali theologian Ibn Taymiyya (d. 1328 C.E/ 728 A.H)
U.S. President Barack Obama meets King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, July 2014
Fath al-Majid (Divine Triumph); an explanatory treatise on Kitab al-Tawhid (Book on Monotheism) by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Hassan Aal ash-Shaykh (1780–1868 C.E)
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi king. The kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan. WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs".
Compilation of ibn Mu'ammar's treatises and Legal verdicts published by Sayyid Rashid Rida in 1925-26 C.E
Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir with then British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson (now Prime Minister) in London, 16 October 2016
Photo of a group of Wahhabi soldiers dated 1935 C.E
Major Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations
British Expeditionary forces sacking the coastal city of Ras al-Khaimah in December 1809
Flag of Al-Qaeda, a transnational terrorist group formed by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian national of Yemeni and Syrian extraction who was stripped of his Saudi passport in 1994.
Fall of Ras al-Khaimah to the British troops during the Persian Gulf Campaign of 1819
"The Saudi pilots training in Italy 1935"—a scene from 'Our Eagles', one of four video wall shows made for the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum
Portrait of a Wahhabi musketeer of Emirate of Diriyah
Saudi soldiers from the First Airborne Brigade.
Deera Square, central Riyadh. It is a former site of public be-headings.
Saudi Arabia topography
Harrat Khaybar seen from the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of harrat (the singular is harrah), form one of Earth's largest alkali basalt regions, covering some 180000 km2, an area greater than the state of Missouri.
A proportional representation of Saudi Arabia exports, 2019
Office of Saudi Aramco, the world's most valuable company and the main source of revenue for the state
The hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims.
King Abdullah Financial Center is one of the largest investment centres in the Middle East, located in Riyadh
Al-Hasa is known for its palm trees and dates. Al-Hasa has over 30 million palm trees which produce over 100 thousand tons of dates every year.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km2)
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
The Al-Yamamah Private University in Riyadh
UIS literacy rate Saudi Arabia population, 15 plus, 1990–2015
Historical development of life expectancy in Saudi Arabia
Supplicating pilgrim at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. The Kaaba is the cubic building in front of the pilgrim.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Sarah Attar is a track and field athlete who competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the first two female Olympians representing Saudi Arabia.
The Masjid al-Haram is the holiest Islamic site, located in Mecca
The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad
King Abdullah practising falconry, a traditional pursuit in the country
Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine
Uruguay – Saudi Arabia match at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
The 3000-year-old ancient historical city of Dumat al-Jandal in Al Jawf Province
The old city of Jeddah
Jabal Sawda ({{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) located in the 'Asir subrange of the Sarat Mountains
Abha City, located {{convert|2270|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level in the 'Asir Region
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province
The desert of Al-Rub' Al-Khali (The Empty Quarter)
Saad Khader from left and right Mohammad Al-Ali in 1979

The Grand Mosque seizure occurred during November and December 1979 when extremist insurgents calling for the overthrow of the House of Saud took over Masjid al-Haram, the holiest mosque in Islam, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

- Grand Mosque seizure

In 1744, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab formed a pact with a local leader, Muhammad bin Saud, a politico-religious alliance that continued for the next 150 years, culminating politically with the proclamation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932.

- Wahhabism

The ultraconservative Wahhabi religious movement within Sunni Islam has been described as a "predominant feature of Saudi culture", although the power of the religious establishment has been significantly eroded in the 2010s.

- Saudi Arabia

They differed from the original Ikhwan and other earlier Wahhabi purists in that "they were millenarians, they rejected the monarchy and condemned the Wahhabi ulama."

- Grand Mosque seizure

However, in the last couple of decades of the twentieth century several crises worked to erode Wahhabi "credibility" in Saudi Arabia and the rest of the Muslim world – the November 1979 seizure of the Grand Mosque by militants; the deployment of US troops in Saudi Arabia during the 1991 Gulf War against Iraq; and the September 11, 2001 al-Qaeda attacks on New York and Washington.

- Wahhabism

The second event was the Grand Mosque Seizure in Mecca by Islamist extremists.

- Saudi Arabia
An 18th century map of the Arabian Peninsula circa. 1740s

2 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Flag of Saud dynasty

House of Saud

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Flag of Saud dynasty
Genealogical table of the leaders of the Āl Saud
The maximum limits reached by the first Saudi state during the reign of Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in the year 1814.
Flag of the First and Second Saudi State
King Abdulaziz and Franklin D. Roosevelt in February 1945
U.S. President Barack Obama offers condolences on death of Saudi King Abdullah, Riyadh, 27 January 2015
Crown Prince and Defence Minister Mohammad with U.S. Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter, Pentagon, 13 May 2015
US President Donald Trump with the First Lady of the United States Melania Trump, King Salman of Saudi Arabia and Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi at the 2017 Riyadh summit.
U.S. President Jimmy Carter meets with King Khalid and Crown Prince Fahd in January 1978
Crown Prince Muhammad bin Nayef, Deputy Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman, Jared Kushner, Ivanka Trump, King Salman bin Abdulaziz and Melania Trump, Riyadh, 20 May 2017
Luxury yacht Kingdom 5KR owned by Saudi royal family, docked in Antibes, French Riviera
Royal Flag of the King
Demonstrators in Eastern Province during the 1979 Qatif Uprising
Journalist Jamal Khashoggi, murdered at Saud embassy in Turkey because of his opposition to the government
Loujain al-Hathloul, a Saudi citizen who was jailed after she drove a car in the country using her UAE license

The House of Saud (آل سُعُود ) is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia.

Later they were referred to as the Wahhabis, a particularly strict, puritanical Islamic sect, named for its founder.

On 20 November 1979, the Grand Mosque seizure saw the al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca violently seized by a group of 500 heavily armed and provisioned Saudi dissidents led by Juhayman al-Otaybi and Abdullah al-Qahtani, consisting mostly of members of the former Ikhwan militia of Otaibah but also of other peninsular Arabs and a few Egyptians enrolled in Islamic studies at the Islamic University of Madinah.

Flag of the Ikhwan

Ikhwan

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Flag of the Ikhwan
Hand-painted image in January 1930 of the Sheikh of the Mutair tribe and one of the most prominent leaders of the Brotherhood Faisal bin Sultan Al-Duwish
One of the leaders of Ikhwan Sultan bin Bajad Al-Otaibi
Soldiers from akhwan min taʽa Allah Army on Camels carrying the Flags of the Third Saudi State, and Flag of Saud dynasty, Flag and the akhwan Army.
Ikhwan men taa Allah flag

The Ikhwan (الإخوان, The Brethren), commonly known as Ikhwan men taa Allah (إخوان من أطاع الله), was a Wahhabi religious militia made up of traditionally nomadic tribesmen which formed a significant military force of the ruler Ibn Saud and played an important role in establishing him as ruler of most of the Arabian Peninsula in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Insurgents who participated in the 1979 Grand Mosque seizure in Mecca referred to themselves as the 'al-Ikhwan', thus in their eyes justifying the seizure as a means to liberate the Kingdom from what they deemed as 'Western apostasy'.