Grand Trunk Railway

Grand Trunk RailroadGrand TrunkGrand Trunk Railway of CanadaGrand Trunk Railway Company of CanadaGTRGTGrand Trunk Railway CompanyCanadian Grand Trunk Railway CompanyG.T.R.Grand Trunk Line
The Grand Trunk Railway was a railway system that operated in the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario and in the American states of Connecticut, Maine, Michigan, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont.wikipedia
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Southern New England Railway

New England Trunkline TrailSouthern New EnglandSouthern New England Railroad
A fourth subsidiary was the never-completed Southern New England Railway, chartered in 1910, which would have run from a connection with the Central Vermont at Palmer, Massachusetts, to the deep-water, all-weather port of Providence, Rhode Island.
The Southern New England Railway was a never-finished plan by the Grand Trunk Railway (GT) to build a railroad from the GT-owned Central Vermont Railway at Palmer, Massachusetts south and east to the all-weather port of Providence, Rhode Island.

Charles Melville Hays

Charles HaysCharles M. HaysHays, Charles Melville
The loss of the SNER's strongest proponent, Grand Trunk Railway president Charles Melville Hays, on in 1912 may have been the major reason that this new route to the sea was never completed.
Charles Melville Hays (May 16, 1856 – April 15, 1912) was the president of the Grand Trunk Railway.

Portland, Maine

PortlandPortland, MEPortland (ME)
GTR's main line ran from Portland, Maine to Montreal, and then from Montreal to Sarnia, Ontario, where it joined its western subsidiary.
In 1853, upon completion of the Grand Trunk Railway to Montreal, Portland became the primary ice-free winter seaport for Canadian exports.

Grand Trunk Pacific Railway

Grand Trunk PacificGrand TrunkGrand Trunk Pacific Railroad
The Grand Trunk Railway (GTR) managed and operated the entire line.

Toronto

Toronto, OntarioToronto, CanadaToronto, ON
The company was incorporated on November 10, 1852, as the Grand Trunk Railway Company of Canada to build a railway line between Montreal and Toronto.
The Grand Trunk Railway and the Northern Railway of Canada joined in the building of the first Union Station in downtown.

Central Vermont Railway

Central Vermont RailroadVermont Central RailroadCentral Vermont
A fourth subsidiary was the never-completed Southern New England Railway, chartered in 1910, which would have run from a connection with the Central Vermont at Palmer, Massachusetts, to the deep-water, all-weather port of Providence, Rhode Island.
The Montreal and Vermont Junction Railway was chartered in 1860 and opened in the 1860s, extending the Vermont and Canada's branch from the international border north to St. Johns, Quebec, on the Grand Trunk Railway's Montreal and Champlain Railroad.

Richmond, Quebec

RichmondMelbourneMelbourne, Quebec
A line was also built to Lévis, via Richmond from Montreal in 1855, part of the much-talked about "Maritime connection" in British North America.
The St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad opened between Montreal and Portland, Maine, on April 4, 1853 and was purchased four months later and absorbed into the Grand Trunk Railway (GTR)'s system.

Intercolonial Railway

Intercolonial Railway of CanadaIntercolonialIRC
Thus the British North America Act, 1867 included the provision for an Intercolonial Railway to link with the Grand Trunk at Rivière-du-Loup.
Central Canada's dominant railway player in the 1850s was the Grand Trunk Railway (GTR) and its profit-driven business model chose the U.S. Atlantic port of Portland, Maine, over a much longer journey to a Maritime port.

Windsor, Ontario

WindsorWindsor, ONWindsor, Canada
GTR's largest purchase came on August 12, 1882, when it bought the 1371 km Great Western Railway, running from Niagara Falls to Toronto, and connecting to London, Windsor, and communities in the Bruce Peninsula.
Windsor was incorporated as a village in 1854 (the same year the village was connected to the rest of Canada by the Grand Trunk Railway/Canadian National Railway), then became a town in 1858, and gained city status in 1892.

Canadian Government Railways

Canadian governmentCGR
The Grand Trunk, its subsidiaries, and the Canadian Government Railways were precursors of today's Canadian National Railways.
GTPR's parent company, the bankrupt Grand Trunk Railway (GTR) was nationalized on May 21, 1920, and was absorbed into the CNR on January 30, 1923.

Canadian Confederation

ConfederationConfederation of CanadaFather of Confederation
The Grand Trunk was one of the main factors that pushed British North America towards Confederation.

Fort Erie, Ontario

Fort ErieBertie TownshipFort Erie, ON
Several impressive construction feats were associated with the GTR: the first successful bridging of the St. Lawrence River on August 25, 1860, with the opening of the first Victoria Bridge at Montreal (replaced by the present structure in 1898); the bridging of the Niagara River between Fort Erie, Ontario and Buffalo, New York; and the construction of a tunnel beneath the St. Clair River, connecting Sarnia, Ontario, and Port Huron, Michigan.
In 1869 the population was 1,000 and Fort Erie was served by the Grand Trunk and the Erie & Niagara railways.

5 ft 6 in gauge railway

broad gaugeBGBroad Gauge Railway
Common during 19th century railway construction in British colonies, GTR built to a broad gauge (Provincial Gauge) of ; however, this was changed to the standard gauge of between 1872 and 1885 to facilitate interchange with U.S. railroads.
The Grand Trunk Railway which operated in several Canadian provinces (Quebec and Ontario) and American states (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont) used it, but was changed to standard gauge in 1873.

Canada Atlantic Railway

Canada Atlantic Railway Co.CAR
As part of this program, the federal government encouraged the GTR to purchase the Canada Atlantic Railway (CAR) with lines southeast from Ottawa to Vermont, and west from Ottawa to Georgian Bay.
The CAR was owned by Booth for eight years after its formation until he sold it to the Grand Trunk Railway (GTR) in 1904.

National Transcontinental Railway

National TranscontinentalCanadian transcontinental railwayNTR
GTR would build (with federal assistance) and operate the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway (GTPR) from Winnipeg, Manitoba to Prince Rupert, British Columbia, while the government would build and own the National Transcontinental Railway (NTR) from Winnipeg to Moncton, New Brunswick via Quebec City, which the GTR would also operate.
The federal government had encouraged the Grand Trunk Railway (GTR) system in the 1870s to consider building the transcontinental rail line.

Canada East

Eastern section
In 1853 the GTR purchased the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railway from Montreal to the Canada East – Vermont border, and the parent company Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railroad through to the harbour facilities at Portland.
By the 1860s, the Grand Trunk Railway was about $72 million in debt.

Ottawa

Ottawa, OntarioOttawa, CanadaOttawa, ON
As part of this program, the federal government encouraged the GTR to purchase the Canada Atlantic Railway (CAR) with lines southeast from Ottawa to Vermont, and west from Ottawa to Georgian Bay.
On 1 June 1912 the Grand Trunk Railway opened both the Château Laurier hotel and its neighbouring downtown Union Station.

Canadian National Hotels

CN HotelCN HotelsCNR Hotel
In addition to their own hotels, it acquired some from predecessor railway companies like the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, Grand Trunk Railway and Ottawa, Arnprior and Parry Sound Railway.

Victoria Bridge (Montreal)

Victoria BridgeVictoria Bridge, MontrealVictoria
Several impressive construction feats were associated with the GTR: the first successful bridging of the St. Lawrence River on August 25, 1860, with the opening of the first Victoria Bridge at Montreal (replaced by the present structure in 1898); the bridging of the Niagara River between Fort Erie, Ontario and Buffalo, New York; and the construction of a tunnel beneath the St. Clair River, connecting Sarnia, Ontario, and Port Huron, Michigan.
The construction of the bridge was tied directly with that of the Grand Trunk Railway, a system headquartered in Britain which had been formed in 1852 with the support of the colonial government of the United Province of Canada to connect the Great Lakes with an ice-free port on the Atlantic Ocean (at Portland, Maine).

Highland Inn

The Highland Inn (1908–1957) was a year-round resort hotel built and operated by the Grand Trunk Railway (GTR), in Ontario’s Algonquin Provincial Park.

Canadian National Railway

Canadian NationalCanadian National RailwaysCN
The Grand Trunk, its subsidiaries, and the Canadian Government Railways were precursors of today's Canadian National Railways.
Another Canadian railway, the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway (GTPR), encountered financial difficulty on March 7, 1919, when its parent company Grand Trunk Railway (GTR) defaulted on repayment of construction loans to the federal government.

Variable gauge

variable gauge axlesvariable gauge axletrack gauge changing facility
To overcome the gauge difference, the GTR experimented with a form of variable-gauge axles called "adjustable gauge trucks", but these proved unreliable.
Variable gauge axles were used for a while on the Grand Trunk Railway in the 1860s in Canada to connect and standard gauge without transshipment.

Joseph Hickson

Sir Joseph Hickson
Sir Joseph Hickson was a key executive from 1874 to 1890 based in Montreal who kept it afloat financially and formed an alliance with the Conservative party.
He was Secretary-Treasurer, and afterwards President, of the Grand Trunk Railway Company of Canada.

Château Laurier

Chateau LaurierFairmont Chateau LaurierFairmont Château Laurier
Château Laurier was commissioned by Grand Trunk Railway president Charles Melville Hays, and was constructed for $2 million, between 1909 and 1912 in tandem with Ottawa's downtown Union Station (now the Senate of Canada Building) across the street.

Province of Canada

Canada WestUnited Province of CanadaCanada
The charter was soon extended east to Portland, Maine and west to Sarnia, Canada West.
Among its accomplishments, the United Province of Canada built the Grand Trunk Railway, improved the educational system in Canada West under Egerton Ryerson, reinstated French as an official language of the legislature and the courts, codified the Civil Code of Lower Canada in 1866, and abolished the seigneurial system in Canada East.