Grassland

grasslandsgrassveldgrassgrassland ecosystemgrassygrass landgreenswardmeadowopen plainopen plains
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.wikipedia
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Poaceae

grassturfgrass family
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
Poaceae includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and cultivated lawns and pasture.

Savanna

savannahsavannassavannahs
Grassland vegetation can vary in height from very short, as in chalk grassland, to quite tall, as in the case of North American tallgrass prairie, South American grasslands and African savanna. These grasslands are classified with tropical and subtropical savannas and shrublands as the tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.

Biome

biotabiomesmajor habitat type
For example, there are five terrestrial ecoregion classifications (subdivisions) of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome (ecosystem), which is one of eight terrestrial ecozones of the Earth's surface.
Grassland

Miocene

Late MioceneEarly MioceneMiddle Miocene
The appearance of mountains in the western United States during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, a period of some 25 million years, created a continental climate favorable to the evolution of grasslands.
As in the Oligocene before it, grasslands continued to expand and forests to dwindle in extent.

Forb

forbsbroadleaf weedsflowering plants
As flowering plants and trees, grasses grow in great concentrations in climates where annual rainfall ranges between 500 and 900 mm. The root systems of perennial grasses and forbs form complex mats that hold the soil in place.
The term is used in biology and in vegetation ecology, especially in relation to grasslands and understory.

Ecosystem services

ecosystem serviceenvironmental servicesecological services
The professional study of grasslands falls under the category of rangeland management, which focuses on ecosystem services associated with the grass-dominated arid and semi-arid rangelands of the world.
Such ecosystems include, for example, agroecosystems, forest ecosystems, grassland ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems.

Great bustard

Otis tardaOtisbustard
Associated with the wild-plant diversity of the "unimproved" grasslands is usually a rich invertebrate fauna; there are also many species of birds that are grassland "specialists", such as the snipe and the great bustard.
These birds' habitat is grassland or steppe defined by open, flat or somewhat rolling landscapes.

Rain

rainfallrainstormtorrential rain
As flowering plants and trees, grasses grow in great concentrations in climates where annual rainfall ranges between 500 and 900 mm. The root systems of perennial grasses and forbs form complex mats that hold the soil in place.
Rain forests are characterized by high rainfall, with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1750 and 2000 mm. A tropical savanna is a grassland biome located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes, with rainfall between 750 and 1270 mm a year.

Climate

climaticclimate systemclimates
As flowering plants and trees, grasses grow in great concentrations in climates where annual rainfall ranges between 500 and 900 mm. The root systems of perennial grasses and forbs form complex mats that hold the soil in place.
A tropical savanna is a grassland biome located in semiarid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes, with average temperatures remain at or above 18 C year round and rainfall between 750 mm and 1270 mm a year.

Steppe

steppesgrasslandsemi-arid
Mid-latitude grasslands, including the prairie and Pacific grasslands of North America, the Pampas of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, calcareous downland, and the steppes of Europe.
In physical geography, a steppe is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.

Plant

plantsfloraplant kingdom
As flowering plants and trees, grasses grow in great concentrations in climates where annual rainfall ranges between 500 and 900 mm. The root systems of perennial grasses and forbs form complex mats that hold the soil in place.
Many of the Earth's biomes are named for the type of vegetation because plants are the dominant organisms in those biomes, such as grasslands, taiga and tropical rainforest.

Pliocene

Late PliocenePliocene epochEarly Pliocene
The appearance of mountains in the western United States during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, a period of some 25 million years, created a continental climate favorable to the evolution of grasslands.
Deciduous forests proliferated, coniferous forests and tundra covered much of the north, and grasslands spread on all continents (except Antarctica).

Calcareous

calcareous soilcalcareous rockcalcareous rocks
Species richness is particularly high in grasslands of low soil fertility such as serpentine barrens and calcareous grasslands, where woody encroachment is prevented as low nutrient levels in the soil may inhibit the growth of forest and shrub species.
Calcareous grassland is a form of grassland characteristic of soils containing much calcium carbonate from underlying chalk or limestone rock.

Los Llanos (South America)

LlanosLos LlanosLlanos Orientales
Notable tropical and subtropical grasslands include the Llanos grasslands of South America.
This turns the woodlands and grassland into a temporary wetland, comparable to the Pantanal of central South America.

Lion

lionsAfrican lionmane
Carnivores like lions, wolves and cheetahs and leopards are also found in temperate grasslands.
Typically, the lion inhabits grasslands and savannas but is absent in dense forests.

Grazing

grazegrazersgrazed
Grassland vegetation often remains dominant in a particular area usually due to grazing, cutting, or natural or man-made fires, all discouraging colonization by and survival of tree and shrub seedlings.
Although grazing is typically associated with mammals feeding on grasslands, or more specifically livestock in a pasture, ecologists sometimes use the word in a broader sense, to include any organism that feeds on any other species without ending the life of the prey organism.

Prairie dog

prairie dogsprairie dog townblack-tailed prairie dogs
Other animals of this region include: deer, prairie dogs, mice, jack rabbits, skunks, coyotes, snakes, fox, owls, badgers, blackbirds (both Old and New World varieties), grasshoppers, meadowlarks, sparrows, quails, hawks and hyenas.
Prairie dogs (genus Cynomys) are herbivorous burrowing rodents native to the grasslands of North America.

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

subtropical or tropical moist shrublandtropical savannasubtropical or tropical dry shrubland
These grasslands are classified with tropical and subtropical savannas and shrublands as the tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.
Grassland is dominated by grass and other herbaceous plants.

Pastoralism

pastoralistpastoralistspastoral
Some of the world's largest expanses of grassland are found in the African savanna, and these are maintained by wild herbivores as well as by nomadic pastoralists and their cattle, sheep or goats.
McCabe noted that when common property institutions are created, in long-lived communities, resource sustainability is much higher, which is evident in the East African grasslands of pastoralist populations.

Meadowlark

meadow larkmeadowlarks
Other animals of this region include: deer, prairie dogs, mice, jack rabbits, skunks, coyotes, snakes, fox, owls, badgers, blackbirds (both Old and New World varieties), grasshoppers, meadowlarks, sparrows, quails, hawks and hyenas.
Meadowlarks are New World grassland birds belonging to genera Sturnella and Leistes.

Serpentine soil

serpentineserpentine soilsserpentine barrens
Species richness is particularly high in grasslands of low soil fertility such as serpentine barrens and calcareous grasslands, where woody encroachment is prevented as low nutrient levels in the soil may inhibit the growth of forest and shrub species.
Serpentine barrens often consist of grassland or savannas in areas where the climate would normally lead to the growth of forests.

Wild horse

wild horsesEquus ferusE. ferus
Temperate grasslands are the home to many large herbivores, such as bison, gazelles, zebras, rhinoceroses, and wild horses.
In general, wild horses are grazers that prefer to inhabit open areas, such as steppes and grasslands.

Rhinoceros

rhinorhinosrhinoceroses
Temperate grasslands are the home to many large herbivores, such as bison, gazelles, zebras, rhinoceroses, and wild horses.
They are confined to the tall grasslands and forests in the foothills of the Himalayas.

Wolf

wolvesgray wolfgrey wolf
Carnivores like lions, wolves and cheetahs and leopards are also found in temperate grasslands.
The gray wolf is a habitat generalist, and can occur in deserts, grasslands, forests and arctic tundras.

Water-meadow

water meadowwater meadowswatermeadow
Watermeadows are grasslands that are deliberately flooded for short periods.
A water-meadow (also water meadow or watermeadow) is an area of grassland subject to controlled irrigation to increase agricultural productivity.