Setaria pumila, a species of Poaceae (the dominant plant family in grasslands)
Coxilhas (hills covered by grasslands) in the Pampas, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil.
Quercus robur -also known as the English oak- dominating the semi-natural grasslands
Black rhino
mountain plover
Main land-cover trajectories from the 1960s to 2015
Meadow by the Desna river in Ukraine
Cumberland Plain Woodland, a grassy woodland that covers Western Sydney
Grassland in the Antelope Valley, California
Setaria pumila, a species of Poaceae (the dominant plant family in grasslands)

Dominated by grasses .

- Grassland

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Herbaceous plant

Herbaceous plants are vascular plants that have no persistent woody stems above ground.

Lysimachia latifolia (Broadleaf starflower) is a perennial herbaceous plant of the ground layer of forests in western North America.
Senecio angulatus, a herbaceous scrambler and climber

Some habitats, like grasslands and prairies and savannas, are dominated by herbaceous plants along with aquatic environments like ponds, streams and lakes.


First geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about .

Subdivisions of the Miocene
Japan during the Early Miocene
The Mediterranean during the Late Miocene
The dragon blood tree is considered a remnant of the Mio-Pliocene Laurasian subtropical forests that are now almost extinct in North Africa.
Cameloid footprint (Lamaichnum alfi Sarjeant and Reynolds, 1999; convex hyporelief) from the Barstow Formation (Miocene) of Rainbow Basin, California.
Fossils from the Calvert Formation, Zone 10, Calvert Co., MD (Miocene)
A Miocene crab (Tumidocarcinus giganteus) from the collection of the Children's Museum of Indianapolis

As in the Oligocene before it, grasslands continued to expand and forests to dwindle in extent.


Open habitat, or field, vegetated by grasses, herbs, and other non-woody plants.

Wildflower meadow
Urban Meadow at Botaniska Trädgården, Uppsala, Sweden
An urban meadow at Tifft Nature Preserve in Buffalo, New York
Urban meadows in comparison
An uncut hay meadow.
Montane hay meadows with haystacks.
An orchard meadow.
A meadow (pasture) maintained by grazing livestock.
Artificially grazed meadow.
Artificial beehives.
Abandoned meadow in England.
The same landscape some years later.
Conifers encroaching on a meadow in Washington, USA.
The perpetual alpine meadows in Uttarakhand, India (western Himalayas).
The Coastal meadows at the Bay of Biscay near Tapia de Casariego, Spain
A desert meadow near Walla Walla, Washington USA.
Perpetual meadows in Oregon, USA.
Natural meadows and grasslands at Lake Baikal, Russia.
Flood meadow near Hohenau an der March, Austria
Meadows in Shangarh, Himachal Pradesh, India

However, grasslands and meadows also have an important climate change mitigation potential as carbon sinks; deep-rooted grasses store a substantial amount of carbon in soil.


Distinct biogeographical unit consisting of a biological community that has formed in response to a shared regional climate.

One way of mapping terrestrial biomes around the world
Holdridge life zone classification scheme. Although conceived as three-dimensional by its originator, it is usually shown as a two-dimensional array of hexagons in a triangular frame.
The distribution of vegetation types as a function of mean annual temperature and precipitation.
Terrestrial biomes of the world according to Olson et al. and used by the WWF and Global 200.



Typical tropical savanna in Northern Australia demonstrating the high tree density and regular spacing characteristic of many savannas
Tarangire National Park in Tanzania, East Africa
Prescribed burn; Wisconsin bur oak savanna
Grevy's zebras grazing
Iberian pigs feeding on acorns of an holm oak
Savanna in eastern South Africa
Savanna in Western Sydney
Acacia savanna, Taita Hills Wildlife Sanctuary, Kenya.
Mediterranean savanna in the Alentejo region, Portugal
Oak savanna, United States

A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland-grassland (i.e. grassy woodland) ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.


Herbaceous flowering plant that is not a graminoid .

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), a large forb.

The term is used in biology and in vegetation ecology, especially in relation to grasslands and understory.


Large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants commonly known as grasses.

Inflorecence scheme and floral diagram. 1 – glume, 2 – lemma, 3 – awn, 4 – palea, 5 – lodicules, 6 – stamens, 7 – ovary, 8 – styles.
Grass flowers
A kangaroo eating grass
Wind-blown grass in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, United States
Setaria verticillata from Panicoideae
A lawn in front of a building
The gray area is the cricket pitch currently in use. Parallel to it are other pitches in various states of preparation which could be used in other matches.
Grass-covered house in Iceland
Typical grass seen in meadows
Leaves of Poa trivialis showing the ligules
Bamboo stem and leaves, nodes are evident
A Chasmanthium latifolium spikelet
Wheat spike and spikelet
Spikelet opened to show caryopsis
Harestail grass
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
Roots of Bromus hordeaceus
Barley mature spikes (Hordeum vulgare)
Illustration depicting both staminate and pistillate flowers of maize (Zea mays)
A grass flower head (meadow foxtail) showing the plain-coloured flowers with large anthers.
Anthers detached from a meadow foxtail flower
Setaria verticillata, bristly foxtail
Setaria verticillata, bristly foxtail
Oryza sativa, Kerala, India

It includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and species cultivated in lawns and pasture.

American bison

Species of bison native to North America.

Adult male (hindmost) and adult female (foremost), in Yellowstone National Park
Male plains bison in the Wichita Mountains of Oklahoma
Skeleton of plains bison
Plains bison galloping, photos by Eadweard Muybridge, first published in 1887 in Animal Locomotion
An adult European bison
Bison herd grazing at the Bison Range in Montana
Bison fighting in Grand Teton National Park in Moose, Wyoming
Bison herd grazing in Chihuahua, Mexico
Wood bison reintroduction program in Sakha Republic.
A herd of American bison grazing at Tall Grass Prairie Preserve in Osage County, Oklahoma
A cow suckling calf at the Cologne Zoological Garden in Cologne, Germany
A bison wallowing on dirt near Lamar River Canyon
American bison standing its ground against a wolf pack
A grizzly bear feeding on carcass of American bison
Tourists approach dangerously close to a wild herd of American bison to take a photograph in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming
Canned bison meat for sale
Map from 1889 by William Temple Hornaday, illustrating his book, The Extermination of the American Bison
A wood bison around Coal River in Canada
Big Medicine (1933–1959) was a sacred white buffalo that lived on the Bison Range (permanent display at the Montana Historical Society)
Bison being chased off a cliff as "seen" and painted by Alfred Jacob Miller
Ulm Pishkun. Buffalo jump, SW of Great Falls, Montana. The Blackfoot drove bison over cliffs in the autumn to secure the winter supply. The Blackfoot used pishkuns as late as the 1850s.<ref>Ewers, John C. (1988): "The last Bison Drive of the Blackfoot Indians". Indian Life On The Upper Missouri. Norman and London, pp. 157–168</ref>
Bison hunt under the wolf-skin mask, 1832–33
A bison hunt depicted by George Catlin
Original distribution of plains bison and wood bison in North America along the "great bison belt". Holocene bison (Bison occidentalis) is an earlier species at the origin of plains bison and wood bison. {{leftlegend|#DEAA87|Holocene bison}}{{leftlegend|#C87137|Wood bison}}{{leftlegend|#784421|Plains bison}}
Map of the extermination of the bison to 1889. This map based on William Temple Hornaday's late-19th century research.{{leftlegend|#DEAA87|Original range}}{{leftlegend|#A05A2C|Range as of 1870}}{{leftlegend|#28170B|Range as of 1889}}
Distribution of public herds of plains bison and of free-ranging or captive breeding wood bison in North America as of 2003.{{leftlegend|#C87137|Wood bison}}{{leftlegend|#784421|Plains bison}}
Wyoming uses a bison in its state flag
Skin effigy of a Buffalo used in the Lakota Sun Dance
Manitoba uses a bison in its provincial flag, as seen inside the Manitoban coat of arms
The 1935 Buffalo nickel—this style of coin featuring an American bison was produced from 1913 to 1938
Series 1901 $10 legal tender depicting military explorers Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, and an American bison
First postage stamp with image of bison was issued US in 1898—4¢ "Indian Hunting Buffalo", part of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition commemorative series

Its historical range, by 9000 BC, is described as the great bison belt, a tract of rich grassland that ran from Alaska to the Gulf of Mexico, east to the Atlantic Seaboard (nearly to the Atlantic tidewater in some areas) as far north as New York, south to Georgia and, according to some sources, further south to Florida, with sightings in North Carolina near Buffalo Ford on the Catawba River as late as 1750.


About plants with a grass-like appearance.

Germinating fescue grass with long, blade-like leaves
alt=Common rush in shallow water|Common rush (Juncus effusus), Juncaceae
alt=Nutsedge on dune|Nutsedge (Cyperus capitatus), Cyperaceae
alt=Fescue grass tuft|Festuca cinerea, Poaceae

Besides their similar morphology, graminoids share the widespread occurrence and often dominance in open habitats such as grasslands or marshes.

Giant anteater

Insectivorous mammal native to Central and South America.

Anteater with tongue extended
In the grasslands of Serra da Canastra National Park, Brazil
Sleeping under its tail
Two captive anteaters. The species is generally solitary in the wild.
Adult with offspring clinging to her back
Anteater mask and scratcher used by Kayapo boys in their ceremonies

The giant anteater is found in multiple habitats, including grassland and rainforest.